La Violence Simbolique Essay

2004 words - 9 pages

La violence symbolique dans l’imaginaire collectif roumain.
Un regard sur la culture

Introduction

Les sociétés post socialistes sont gender-blind, genre-aveugles (Rovența-Frumușani, 2012; Timár, 2007; Stoilova, 2006), ça signifiant qu’elles sont indifférentes par rapport à genre même dans le monde académique, dans le domaine des études de genre, qui n’est pas assez développé, mais aussi dans des autres domaines et dans la vie quotidienne sociale, culturelle, économique etc. des individus.
La notion d’indifférentisme sur le problème de genre peut être perçue comme positive, si l’on comprend comme une attitude neutre par rapport aux inégalités, différences ou similitudes entre ...view middle of the document...

Les dominés intègrent la vision que les dominants ont sur le monde, ce qui les conduit à se faire d’eux-mêmes une représentation négative, de développer un sentiment d’infériorité ou d’insignifiance. Les dominants ont le pouvoir d’imposer leur propre vision comme objective et collective. Les dominés ne disposent pas d’autres modes de pensée que celui des dominants et ils sont ignorés ou stigmatisés. Tout se fait de façon implicite et non consciente. Dans son article de 1990, La Domination Masculine, Bourdieu a exemplifié comme, en termes de genre, cette domination peut être aperçue aux tous niveaux, directement ou physiquement et, même, institutionnellement et au niveau culturel.
Si on explore Roumanie sur le modèle de Geert Hofstede, on peut observer qu’en ce qui concerne la distance de pouvoir, il y a une distance hiérarchique très grande entre les dominants et les dominés, distance qui est acceptée par tous les membres de la société. C’est pourquoi le pays est prédisposé de se rencontrer avec de la violence symbolique de toutes sortes.
En ce qui concerne la violence symbolique entre les deux sexes, un bon exemple qu’elle est manifeste est le guide de conscientisation réalisé en 2005 par les deux chercheuses roumaines Ina Curic et Lorena Văetişi de l’Institut Roumain pour Action, Instruction et Recherche dans le Domain de la Paix (Institutul Român pentru Acțiune, Instrucție și Cercetare în Domeniul Păcii). Dans ce guide, les auteures recherchent et analyse la violence directe, structurelle et culturelle exercée sur les femmes en Roumanie. La violence symbolique et définie comme structurelle et culturelle. Dans les pages suivantes, on va observer comme la violence symbolique culturelle se manifeste en Roumanie en ce qui concerne les femmes.

La violence symbolique féminine en Roumanie. Une dimension culturelle

La raison pour laquelle on va traiter la violence culturelle ou qui est propagé par la culture est celle qu’elle est bien enracinée dans l’imaginaire collectif et, donc, elle est la base pour la violence directe ou structurelle (institutionnelle, la manière dans laquelle les dominés sont vues et se comportent dans les organisations). Continuellement, on va observer comment la violence symbolique se manifeste dans la culture populaire et littéraire, dans les mass-médias et dans le langage.
En 1943, l’anthropologue américaine Ruth Benedict a fait une étude sociologique et anthropologique à distance sur la culture et le comportement des roumains. En observant des proverbes et des sources littéraires roumaines, elle a conclu que battre la femme est une partie componentielle du mariage, comme un sort de prélude sexuel (Constantinescu, 2005).
On peut observer qu’il y a beaucoup de proverbes nés du savoir populaire roumain qui enseignent que la femme doit être battue (“Moara trebuie bătută de trei ori pe zi iar femeia de şase”), ou que la violence est un cadeau divin („Bătaia e ruptă din rai“), que la femme représente le...

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