This paper is written for the purposes of testing and exploration of Total Quality Management practices in the Euro area, with the special emphasis on the region of South Eastern Europe. The companies chosen in the report are coming from the various industries, whereas 3 of them are from retailing area, 3 from manufacturing industry and 4 from the servicing industry. Given that the seven of them can be described as multinational companies, it is expected to have results that will support differences in TQM adoption, regarding the transfer of practices and obstacles observed, when compared with the different regions in the world, especially with the early adopters, such as ...view middle of the document...
However, it is of high importance to state that the any adoption of TQM practice is by no means possible to be done in the quick manner, it “does require fundamental shift in thinking and production techniques, as well as culture change on all levels” (Crainer and Dearlove, p. 323).
The origins of the term, as more or less is acknowledged in the work of (), can be traced to the end of the Second World War, in Japan, a country that has suffered from nuclear strike and have started to embrace the influence from the United States of America, where the concept was developed at first. As time evolved, Japanese practices, heavily influenced by the proposals and works of TQM gurus, such as Deming (1986) and Juran, stated in Banks (1999), became highly successful, expanding and combining the development of the other practices and concepts as well, such as Just in Time (JIT) systems, RM (Relationship Marketing) and CM (Cost Management), achieving remarkable results. It can be freely stated, as seen in the works of (Babbar, 1995) and Ou et al (2005),that Total Quality Management today is the concept that has very favorable notation, covering very broad range of efficient and effective management practices.
So far, the application of Total Quality Management has been found in the various industries, including services as well, showing that this framework is not only applicable to the projects that require an enormous budget (space shuttle construction), but to a projects and enterprises that are adding value in general basis, such as library work functioning or educational instructions, as observed in the work of Pandi et al (2005).
However, as can be seen in the tests and comments presented, the eventual application of Total Quality Management practices is costly and time – consuming, requiring the skills that are in certain cases transferred from the more development countries, given the approach and traditional background. In addition, one of the strengths of TQM is actual possibility of transfer, through various means, pursued and structured from the very first days of concept testing, at first on relation United States of America – Japan. The obstacles in most of the cases can be simply described as a cultural barriers, given that in the countries in development “kaizen” approach can not be introduced in the short – time span, and cannot be simply copied as well (Tari, 2005). Therefore, companies that have been outlined in the report were pursuing many adjustments and various management people – oriented practices in order to achieve certain levels of discussed concept.
Regarding the areas of the world where Total Quality Management have been common practice, having solid basis and framed within the on-going improvements, the results sometimes can bring a benefit of doubt, such as in the case of Taiwan, although different business performance levels were examined. Similarly, as in Alexander et al (2009), empirical tests in developed countries...