Under the Ottoman Empire, the Lebanese enjoyed a social & cultural development phase that was flourishing. The Lebanese Christians kept good ties with the Europeans that would occasionally visit and spread their influence. The Ottoman reform had an impact on every part of the Empire, including a major role in Lebanon. The Muslims recognized the strength and superiority of the western military; therefore they adopted some of the westerners’ methods. The Muslims feared the western domination, but were subject to change for scientific enhancements.
However, the Lebanese were living through a “ray of freedom” in which they wanted to modernize and enhance their ways of life. The population ...view middle of the document...
The next problem rose with the lack of books. As schools opened, there were less and less books available because they were handwritten. The press could not use Arabic because of the Muslims so they used Syriac. First books written were about religion, and then eventually developed into culture. The cultural movement didn’t have a popular effect, because only a minority was getting educated.
Niqula Turk was a pioneering Lebanese poet that awakened new ambitions among his younger contemporaries. Al-Turk represented a wide literary movement in which more poets were rising such as Butrus Karam. Name new young talents were encouraged to join in such as Al-Shihabi who became a very distinguished scholar.
By 1820, the beginning of cultural awakening could be noticed more frequently around. Young men were eager to be educated yet they differed in finding ways to obtain an education. The arrival of the American missionaries was the big new step as they established their religious connections and opened numerous educational institutes across the country.
The American printing press started in 1834. These helped them spread education across Lebanon and by the mid-1800s were holding 25 institutes. All the aristocrats like the educational system by the Americans, and so placed their children in their institutes. One successful network was the “Lebanon Schools” that initiated from 5 to 25 schools that accepted all genders and all religions.
However Ibrahim Pasha started a military school that boosted education for Muslims and even established hospitals all around. This over-shadowed the American educational...