Task 1 – How would you define criminology? (418 words)
Criminology lives as discipline that many people relate to differently, depending on their academic interests, background and exposure to the topic. For me personally it is useful to acknowledge this in order to develop a deeper understanding of the subject and my charity’s work. Therefore, I believe that the overarching definition of criminology would need to fulfill all the criteria of what we would require an effective theory to embrace, whilst also allowing me to relate to it as a tool that clearly identifies the remit of criminology.
Criteria, such as concrete, evidence-based, quantitative or qualitative and scientifically-rooted, are fundamental to the subject of criminology. ‘The basic idea of science is to establish a method of knowing things that is independent of people’s opinions about them.’ This avoids overgeneralisation and prevents a theory from becoming so abstract that it detaches itself and no longer ...view middle of the document...
What is considered to be an act of crime is normally defined by a person in power. Therefore the subject or object of investigation by the study of criminology includes the psychological assessment of a human being and the exploration of the dynamic between decision makers, institutions, the state and other authorities overseeing crime as their responsibility. This work draws on elements from various academic fields, including psychology, economics, anthropology, psychiatry, biology, statistics and other disciplines to explain the causes and prevention of criminal behaviour. We could say that criminology is the ‘study of various ways of systematically thinking about the description, prediction, explanation and control of crime.’
Task 2 – Explain the difference between macro and micro theories used by Criminologists (140 words)
Macro theory and Micro theory are both detailed theories that pay close attention to different aspects of crime and criminal behaviour.
The Macro theory of crime and criminal behaviour explains the larger scale of crime across the world or across a society; they attempt to answer why there are variations in group rates of crime, for example Macro theory may provide an explanation as to why one neighbourhood has a higher crime rate than another local neighbourhood.
In contrast, the Micro theory of crime and criminal behaviour focuses on a small group of offenders or on an individual crime. The theory attempts to answer why some individuals are more likely than others to commit crime for example Micro theory could explain why it is said that women are less inclined towards deviancy and criminal behaviour than men.
[ 1 ]. Study House, ‘Criminology’, Kendal Publishing Limited (2009); p. 22
[ 2 ]. Study House, ‘Criminology’, Kendal Publishing Limited (2009); p. 24
[ 3 ]. Study House, ‘Criminology’, Kendal Publishing Limited (2009); p. 22-23
[ 4 ]. Study House, ‘Criminology’, Kendal Publishing Limited (2009); p. 25
[ 5 ]. Study House, ‘Criminology’, Kendal Publishing Limited (2009); p. 25
[ 6 ]. http://www.answers.com/topic/criminology (Law Encyclopaedia, ‘Criminology’)
[ 7 ]. Study House, ‘Criminology’, Kendal Publishing Limited (2009); p. 21
[ 8 ]. http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf, p. 4