Literature review of Job satisfaction and organizational commitment in organisations
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment are two of the most prominent work attitudes examined in the work and organizational literature. These constructs also receive much attention within the more specific work-family literature. Researchers have often included both constructs in their examination of the relationships between work-family issues and work outcomes.
Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is defined as "the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs" (Spector, 1997, p. 2).
Organizational Commitment: Meyer and Allen (1994) state that organizational ...view middle of the document...
Exemplary of this work is Meyer & Allen's model of commitment, which was developed to integrate numerous definitions of commitment that had proliferated in the literature. According to Meyer and Allen's (1991) three-component model of commitment, prior research indicated that there are three "mind sets" which can characterize an employee's commitment to the organization:
Affective Commitment: AC is defined as the employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. This employee commits to the organization because he/she "wants to". In developing this concept, Meyer and Allen drew largely on Mowday, Porter, and Steers's (1982) concept of commitment, which in turn drew on earlier work by Kanter (1968).
Continuance Commitment: The individual commits to the organization because he/she perceives high costs of losing organizational membership (cf. Becker's 1960 "side bet theory"), including economic costs (such as pension accruals) and social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) that would be incurred. The employee remains a member of the organization because he/she "has to".
Normative Commitment: The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation. These feelings may derive from many sources. For example, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a 'moral' obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.' It may also reflect an internalized norm, developed before the person joins the organization through family or other socialization processes, that one should be loyal to one's organization. The employee stays with the organization because he/she "ought to".
"Psychological contract" is a famous American psychologist mercy Management (E. H. Schein) in the 20th century's a term of 60 years, the mercy seems, is the psychological contract "each member of the organization and different managers and among others, at any time, there is an absence of express provision in the expectations. "It consists of two parts, one individual employee goals with organizational goals and commitments fit relationship; the second is put through a series of staff, the return cycle after its experience in the organization constitute, and where companies fit the formation of emotional relationship, reflected in the staff of the organization's sense of dependence and loyalty. In short, the business expectations clearly to staff development, and provide the conditions to meet this expectation as far as possible; and every employee that businesses can achieve their expectations, and full dedication to the development of enterprises. Thus, the existence of the psychological contract between employees and enterprises in the implicit contract, the core is employee satisfaction.