(C) Literature Review
This chapter discusses related works in the area of E-voting system. It also brought to
light some gaps which are required to be filled up in this respect.
First of all, voting entails a democratic apparatus used to enthrone democratic leaders and in some quarters it is regarded as one of the most effective methods for individuals to express their opinions on a given topic (Chaum, 1981). Hence Gritzalis (2002) expressed that voting is a process at the heart of a democratic society. He therefore stressed that in recent democratic elections using voting machines have shown that the winning margins could be less than the error ...view middle of the document...
Chaum (1981) one of the pioneers of e-voting gave a definition of e-voting as the use of computers or
computerized voting equipment to cast ballots in an election. The first practical e-voting
protocol for large scale elections is of Fujioka et ai, (1992). Verifiability was firstly introduced in this protocol however it requires more voter involvement and accuracy can be violated that the malicious authority can add votes if any voter abstains from voting in the counting stage.
[2.0] Verification & validation (V& V) in E-voting
This aspect of review looks at verification and validation in respect to e-voting system. To define explicitly, verification is the process of verifying that the system complies with design specifications and formally specified properties, such as consistency and redundancy. While validation is the process of validating that the system satisfies the intended use and fulfils the user requirements.
In E-voting, verification is the process of verifying that the e-voting system complies with design specifications and formally specified system requirements, such as robustness and fairness; and validation is the process of validating that the e-voting system satisfies its intended use and fulfils the user requirements, such as accuracy and eligibility. Verification also includes the review of interim work steps and interim outputs during the e-voting process to ensure they are acceptable.
[2.1] Internet Voting Security
In an attempt to inculcate security in internet voting system, several applications have
been developed. Some of these applications are discussed as follows:
Aviel (2002) discusses the security considerations for remote electronic voting in public elections. In particular, he examines the feasibility of running national federal elections over the Internet. The focus of his paper is on the limitations of the current deployed infrastructure in terms of the security of the hosts and the Internet itself. He finally concluded that at present, the infrastructure is inadequate for remote Internet voting.
According to Jefferson et af. (2004) The Secure Electronic Registration and Voting
Experiment (SERVE) is an Internet based voting system built by Accentor and its
subcontractors for the U.S. Department of Defense FVAP (Federal Voting Assistance
Program). FVAP's mission is to reduce voting barriers for all citizens covered by the
Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA). SERVE is
intended to allow UOCAVA voters both to register to vote and to vote via the Internet,
from anywhere in the world. It is meant to be a complete, Independent Testing
Authority- qualified and state-certified voting system that collects real votes. Kohno et. al. (2004) discusses on the criticism ill the Direct-Recording electronic (DRE) voting systems in which they pointed out that due to various deficiencies and security vulnerabilities it has being widely criticized. Therefore they believe that the...