Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Case For And Against The Supplementation Of Infant Formula

1176 words - 5 pages

LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS: THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST THE SUPPLEMENTATION OF INFANT FORMULA

The following paper investigates the role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and its effects on infants to determine whether or not there is beneficial to supplement LCPUFAs in infant products. A brief introduction to the topic is provided and the key concepts defined, after which thorough analysis of a variety of studies is conducted.

Word Count: 1024

In neural structure, the specific LCPUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) can be found. DHA is a component of neurone membranes and external segments of fotoreceptors in the retina. In the ...view middle of the document...

Dietary n-3 fatty acids are able to affect the retina and visual acuity by influencing their rate of development [5].

Consequences of deficiency

LCPUFA deficiency in children can manifest into a condition known as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), used to describe children who are inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive [6]. These behaviours may affect school performance, family relations and social interactions with peers. ADHD has been associated with conditions that cause neurological impairment [2]. N-3 fatty acids deficiency leads to impaired neurotransmitter reception in brain and altered neuronal plasticity. In addition, skin changes unresponsive to linoleic acid supplementation, abnormal visual function and peripheral neuropathy would be happened of deficiency of n-3 fatty acids [7]. Unfortunately, the process of synthesis of LCPUFA is unable to infants.

Evidence on reduces heart rate

Based on a double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel-group perspective trial, 122 term infants were fed one of four formulas varying in their DHA composition from birth to 12 months; three with varying levels of two LCPUFAs (DHA and AA) and one formula with no LCPUFA (control formula), tested at aged of 4, 6 and 9 months and measured the heart rate during the administration of the visual attention task [3]. This trial involved those healthy, term, formula-fed, singleton-birth infants. Infants were fed the study formula for the first 12 months without limits.

In the result shown, infants’ heart rate change consistently with age, overall, heart rate in beats per minute declined from 146 to 138 to 133 at 4, 6 and 9 months, respectively. The results have shown the positive effects of postnatal DHA supplementation in term infants typically more than 0.20% total fatty acids as DHA. Moreover, lower heart rate was shown consistently for all three supplemented groups, relative to controls. The increased intake of n-3 LCPUFA will affect the reduction or increased of heart rate, however, the effect of lowering heart rate in adult populations is viewed as a positive health outcome and has been suggested to impart positive impacts on affective, cognitive and behavioural outcomes [3].

Evidence of visual acuity

A double-masked, randomised trial found a specific benefit if dietary DHA for retinal maturation and visual acuity development at 2 sites. 343 healthy, term, formula-fed infants were enrolled at 1-9 days of age and were randomly assigned to be fed 1 of the following 4 infant formulas containing equivalent nutrient amounts, except for LCPUFA: control (0% DHA), 0.32% DHA, 0.64% DHA or 0.96% DHA. Visual acuity was measured by visual evoked...

Other Essays Like Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: the Case for and Against the Supplementation of Infant Formula

The Standard Formula Of An Article In Applied Ethics

803 words - 4 pages The Standard Formula of an Article in Applied Ethics Although philosophical articles can vary widely in their structure and writing style, most credible articles in applied ethics follow a predictable formula. In this conception of that formula, applied ethics articles can typically be broken into five distinct components: 1. Introduction to the case the author wishes to analyze The introduction usually features a brief overview of the issue and

The Writing of the Long Song

985 words - 4 pages The writing of the long song “How can I be proud of my Jamaican roots, when my ancestors had been slaves”? This question asked by a woman with Jamaican roots followed British novelist Andrea Levy for a long time. She wondered how anyone could be ashamed of his or her legacy and thus the foundation of her book, The Long Song, was laid. However, writing the book was a more difficult task than presumed. Levy considered many things at the

Managing Risk in the Supply Chain: Case Kapton

2593 words - 11 pages data for Delta to analyze the financial health of its supplies. Besides, some qualitative warning signs can also reveal supplier distress. For example, in our case, ABC's equipment is old and manually operated. Both of them are signs of supplier distress. Of course, Delta can also use third-party tools such as Altman Z-reports, D&B reports, and FactSet Research Systems to evaluate suppliers and mitigate supply chain risk. Building in supply

Long Run Forecast of the Covariance Matrix

5165 words - 21 pages time. The EWMA model was popularized by JP Morgan with their RiskMetrics software that used the EWMA methodology for forecasting volatility. The EWMA model is known to provide useful forecasts for volatility and correlation over the very short term such as next day/week; however its usage is limited in case of long-term forecasting. (Alexander, 2008:130) The EWMA model can be represented mathematically as below: st2=1-λλ(1-λWE)i=1WEλiyt-12 Equation

The Effect of Long Distance Relationships

868 words - 4 pages core. He no longer lived a “civilian life” and it became very hard for us to understand each other’s frustrations. The final main factor that contributes to the effects of long distance relationships is will power. Once trust and communication became so stressful in our relationship, the will power to want to move forward and to have the strength to constantly be arguing and working through situations was tough. I never thought that I would

The Long Term Dangers of Genetic Engineering

1929 words - 8 pages The Long Term Dangers of Genetic Engineering James Candler COM-220 March 28 2012 Lynndi Tennyson The long term dangers of genetic engineering Did you know that the very vehicle currently used to transfer genetic material for the purpose of genetic engineering is a virus? Genetic engineering, simply put is taking genetic material from one organism and transferring it to another to produce desired results. This can encompass anything as

The Case for Reparation

606 words - 3 pages Liberal’s view instead of using I say to reply his argument. Since, Coates explains that we are the United States, we’re support to be equal but we’re not, so then equality laws are not being followed. And white people keep being unfair to black people. This then causes the Federal Government to end up being responsible that. In the article “ The Case for Reparations” by Ta-Nehisi Coates, the argument that Coates responds to demonstrates the “ They say I say” process. Especially his words choose, which make his idea’s expander. Basically, he respond to how white people’s being racism to other races and the truth behind the equality during 19th century in this article.

The Case for Change

1278 words - 6 pages The Case for Change at Modern Appliances | Employee Engagement at Modern Appliances Inc. | The Case for Change | | In order to build an increased spectrum of customer service, an internal strategy to modify Modern Appliances’ employee engagement was needed. Within an employee centered culture, employees are utilized for their overall value input for increased exposure and profit. This case study will focus on the methods and strategy

The Case Against High School Sports Funding In America

1194 words - 5 pages After reading " The Case Against High School Sports" by Amanda Ripley started to make me think. There were many strong points about how the priorities of the sports are beginning to be more important to students than their education. Another great point was that the financing and budgeting is unfairly distributed throughout school districts and is spent more on athletics and clubs and not enough on classes. And I Believe that schools should put

Against the Backdrop of the Ukraine

1184 words - 5 pages based firmly on partnership. Trend #3 The key doctrinal idea of Russian foreign policy will be to check the spread of anarchy, avert the collapse of statehood, and preserve government control. This idea will run counter to the theory of democratization as the guarantor of stable development. Russia will build situational or even long-term alliances with other regional and global players around this idea, which might be successfully used for

Understanding the Supply Chain

517 words - 3 pages of the supply chain as it encompasses different stages , each stage is coupled through the flow of products and information funds . Each supply chain generates a value , always differentiating product value for customers and value chain costs , the value will always be related to the fulfillment of the supply chain , the difference between the income that an client generates and total cost . The most important objective of a supply chain must

Related Papers

The Case Against Perfection Essay

1113 words - 5 pages The case against Perfection The legal issues concerning the use of Genetic Modification experiments on humans and the impact on individual rights and responsibilities is a progressive issue plaguing our society. Genetic Engineering is the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic structure. A two-year inquiry by the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC) and the Australian Health Ethics Committee

This Essay Explains What Is Done And Said At The Baptism Of An Infant And What The Different Rituals/Acts Represent For Christians

1150 words - 5 pages trust in everything that he does.Following the decision, comes the signing with the cross which represents that they show their faith in Jesus and truly believe that he will come again. The Vicar says: "Christ claims you for his own. Receive the sign of his cross."The sixth event of infant baptism in an Anglican Church is the prayer of the holy water. This process is to symbolise the incident when God's people were saved when he parted the Red Sea

Experiments To Determine The Effect Of Acids & Bases

2019 words - 9 pages thought this because all of the domestic cleaners are suited to remove different things such as grease and mould and for this you would need a different pH level. Materials: * Bottles of Different Indicators * Strong and Weak Acids * Strong and Weak Bases * Rack with Test Tubes * Containers of Different Domestic Cleaners * Ceramic Tile * Universal Indicator pH Chart * Lab Coat * Safety Goggles * Small Quantity of Paper Towel Method

The Dissociation Constants Of Weak Monoprotic Acids Were Determined With The Aid Of A Buffer And Ph Meter

888 words - 4 pages this experiment was that the Ka values for HX and HY were similar except for part 1. Part 1 was excluded in the averages in the data sheet because since no base is present in the solution, a different Ka value will be given then the other solutions which had base in the solution. Also, since the solutions of the experiment were prepared first before calibrating the pH meter, the group received a better pH reading because the pH of the solutions were measured one after the other.Conclusion: In the experiment, it was seen that the dissociation of weak monoprotic acids were constant for HX and for HY given from the Ka values.