Ma Methodological Approaches Resit 1 Essay

2231 words - 9 pages

Assignment - MA


Name and surname:
Ana Maria Ribeiro Carvajal Castellano
Login: BRFPMME2085437
Group: 2016-02
Date: August,23th 2016

Fundacíon Universitária Iberoamericana

Master in Teaching English as a Foreign Language


Index ………………………………………………………………………………..2

Question 1. ………………………………………………………………………….3

Question 2 ………………………………………………………………………….5

Question 3 ………………………………………………………………………….6

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According to Stephen Krashen, the best methods for language learning are those which supply “in low anxiety situations, with messages that the students are willing to hear. If the students are not prepared they are not ready to learn. Then “Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication – in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.” (Stephen Krashen, 1987).

Therefore, as stated in The Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983; Terrell et al, 1997) it is possible to recognize the elements that are involved in reading activities. As reported through Krashen's theory of second language acquisition, it consists of five main hypotheses: Acquisition-Learning hypothesis, Monitor hypothesis, Input hypothesis, Natural Order hypothesis, and the Affective Filter hypothesis. In the beginning the author indicates that the use of charts and tables is a good method of providing comprehensible input embedded in a meaningful context. According to Krashen (1987), the Input Hypothesis answers the question of how a language learner develops competency through a period of time. He states that "We acquire, in other words, only when we understand language that contains structure that is 'a little beyond' where we are now." Therefore, it is possible to have the accomplishment of getting a better performance because the students and teachers are using the context of the language they are hearing or reading, as well as their knowledge of the real world they are in, and the material which is based on both real information and in the reading. There is something else very interesting to mention, and this is the fact that these charts and tables can be used not only with basic level students, but also with more advanced ones demonstrating that the speech comes out in stages. The article also describes the fact that students at the first levels should only answer simple questions with one word, for example, yes or no. However, advanced students might provide answers with more information pointing out the characteristic that the input should always be higher than the students’ level. Those tables and charts are set up on the students’ interests and the language instruction is centered on the accomplishment of communicative competence rather than on grammatical perfection.

According to Nunan (2001) and related to ‘charts and tables providing comprehensible input’ they can be classified as top-down tasks because we need to use our knowledge of the context to participate in the discourse. Then for the chart or table to be effectively comprehensible the students need to have previous knowledge on the subject they are working with.

Nunan (2001) establishes that there are two types of tasks related to charts and tables: the real world and the pedagogic ones. They can provide the basis for questions...

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