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Macro Environment Essay

1842 words - 8 pages

Dr Carmel Desmarchelier
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Student ID: 201413856
Dr Carmel Desmarchelier
[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]
Student ID: ...view middle of the document...

It is a field in which we study about people that how they communicate with people in different manners. Hofstede is a very famous person in the field of cross-culture communication. His research is based on some dimensions. As I have chosen Pakistan to compare with Australia, let's see the differences from hofstedes point of view. He has divided his research into six dimensions.

Power Distance Index (PDI)
Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)
Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
Long Term Orientation vs. Short Term Normative Orientation.
Indulgence versus Restraint (IND)
What is power distance? Power distance is defined as less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. If we talk about Pakistan, the power distance level is too high as compared to Australia. All the individuals don't enjoy the same rights. There is VIP class, upper class, middle class, and lower class in Pakistani culture. The rich keeps on becoming rich and the poor keeps on going poor. The power distance is about 55% Pakistan. But if we see In Australia, the case is bit different. The power distance in Australia is just 36% which is pretty good as compared to Pakistan. In Australia, the level of the hierarchy is very low. The superiors are always accessible for the local people. They don't show their power of seats and authorities. In fact, the hierarchy is made for convenience in Australia. If a Hotel manager is in Australia, it is more likely that both the managers are expected to be consulted; moreover the information is shared frequently and effectively.
The second dimension that Hofstede discussed is Individualism vs. collectivism. It differs from country to country. In Pakistan, the level of collectivism is high as compared to Australia.People in Pakistan preferring collectivism. They rely on each other, so it refers to a collectivistic society. Pakistan score in this dimension is only 14%. It also refers to extended family systems and more people work in groups. Loyalty in Pakistan is paramount. Culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules and regulations. They make strong relationships and do care for each other. In Australia the level of individualism is high such that, it is 90%. Australia is a highly individualistic country. People rely on their own, and they look after themselves. In offices and people are more individualistic, and this shows a loosely knitted society. In the business world, people are required to self-perform and display an initiative. The decisions or promotions are made only by seeing the individual performances. People usually don't interfere in others life because they are more individual.
Masculinity or femininity is the most important dimension of Hofstede theory of cross-culture communication. Hofstede defined this dimension as "Masculinity stands for a society in which social gender roles are...

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