One of the first schools of management, the classical management theory, developed during the Industrial Revolution when new problems related to the factory system began to appear. Managers were unsure of how to train employees. A large amount of the non-English speaking immigrants or dealing with increased labor dissatisfaction caused managers to test solutions. According to Plunkett, Attner & Allen (2008) “The classical management focused on finding the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks” (p.38). This school of thought is made up of two branches: classical scientific and classical administrative.
The scientific branch arose because of the need to increase efficiency and ...view middle of the document...
Today, this encourages managers to use mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to make management decisions. Operations management is a smaller branch of the quantitative approach to management. It focuses on managing the process of transforming materials, labor, and capital into useful goods and/or services. Management information systems are the most recent of the quantitative school. A management information system organizes past, present, and projected data from both internal and external sources and processes it into reliable information. The systems management theory has had a large effect on management science. The 4 parts of the theory are:
* Inputs - material or human resources.
* Transformation processes - technological and managerial processes
* Outputs — products or services
* Feedback — reactions from the environment
The quality school of management is a concept for leading and operating an organization, geared at continually improving performance by focusing on customers while addressing the needs of all stakeholders. This concept focuses on managing the total organization to deliver high quality to customers. Organizations are made up of detailed systems of customers and suppliers. Every individual, manager, executive, and worker functions as both a supplier and a customer. Meeting the customers' needs is a priority goal and is a key to organizational survival and growth.
The Kaizen approach is the continuous improvement suggests that managers, teams,...