Management And Leadership Essay

1009 words - 5 pages

Name : kiran kumar penta Reg no: 130206

Introduction: management is one of those bodies of theory and practice, concerns might be considered as rational inventory in human affairs. In 19th century the universally applicable principles of management began in heart land of Europe and America , upon work of Henry Fayol and than considered scientific management (Taylorism), known as classical theory. These are mainly concerned with structure and mechanization of organization , human relations & social psychological theories focused on human factor at work. And as technology changes the organizations are shifting their emphasis to knowledge management which has several approaches to ...view middle of the document...

Select and train workers Accept that management governs operations by science and development ,surrenders power to workers.

Responsibility: person who occupies a position in organization to perform task. The main thing in scientific management is power centralized and efficiency increased by improving working methods.

Human relations: It mainly focuses on human factor at work and peoples behavior in work place. This is particularly interested in human motivation, group –relationships, and leadership. Hawthorne studies(1927-1932): It concerned with the studying people interms of social relationships at work. For the development of enterprise manager had to study the charecteristics of the worker inorder to improve the quality of product. It has became creation and development of behavioural school for studying human behavior and influence of him on productivity. This behaviourlism theory is called human relations theory. The main aim of this theory is to motivate workers to achieve goal with quality output. This behaviourlism is mainly connected to Elton mayo(1880-1949). He is the founder of human relations who stressed managerial strategies to ensure that concern people at work given the highest priority. At the time of hawthorne studies he involved with study related to fatigue ,accidents in a company. It surprised him to increase the productivity whether lighting improved or not. Here these studies carried out several years in stages, concerning with effect of lighting on output, object to make closer and effect of differing physical conditions on productivity, company decided to implement an interview program to employees attitude on working conditions and supervising their jobs, observing a group under working conditions in a period of six months, and finally commences an employee relations and took form of personel counseling. The human approach to management faced many problems from revolution. Moving from scientific methods in organization to get awareness of people working in organization. This human approach gives importance to man and social aspects. The effect of Mary Parker Follet in human approach is major contribution. She conclude human problems were not just important but were central to success of organization. It suggested in 3 ways. 1. By domination( win-loose). 2. By integration(win-win). 3. By...

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