MASTER OF ARTS IN PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT
ATITI Stella Agnes
Q. Explain Management as a Science and as an Art and as both
Definition of Management: Management has been defined in various ways by different scholars. The definition given in the Wikipedia Encyclopaedia is:
Management in business and organizations means to coordinate the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing and controlling an organization or initiative to accomplish a goal.
The management is universally ...view middle of the document...
Management as a science:
First, it is a science because it is based on a set of organized knowledge founded on proper scientific findings and exact principles. It is part of the branch of science known as social science just like sociology, economics or history. Management is also a behavioural science in which its theories and principles are based on the situation.
Management is considered as a science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truth.
The purpose of science is to explain phenomena. Science is based on the belief that relationships can be found between two or more sets of events. The scientific method involves determining facts through observation of events and verifying their accuracy through continued observation. After classifying and analyzing the facts observed, scientists establish causal relationships known as hypotheses that they test for accuracy. When hypotheses are supported, and are found to explain or predict reality they become principles. However, principles are not permanent they can still be challenged by future research and analysis and either modified or discarded.
Principles, Theory and Concepts: Principles, theory and concepts form the structural framework of a science.
Principles are fundamental truths or what are believed to be truths at a given time, explaining relationships between two or more sets of variables. In Management we can say motivation has a positive effect on the performance of employees.
Theory is a systematic grouping of interrelated principles. It ties together significant knowledge to form a framework.
For example, the theory of attribution which explains the behaviour of an individual (employee) on the basis of whether it was caused by an external or an internal influence. Internal causes are those believed to be under the personal control of the individual while external causes are those believed to be beyond the control of the individual. These are judged on the basis of distinctiveness, consensus and consistency. These theory can be used to establish factors affecting an employee’s performance.
Concepts are mental images of something formed by generalization from particulars. Concepts are the building blocks of theory and principles. However, they tend to always imply different things to different people. For example; management, organization, technology, labour are concepts.
Management as an Art:
Management can also be an art. An art refers to the best way of doing something. Management can be said to be the process of directing scientific knowledge to the accomplishment of objectives. Like any other art, management is creative, develops new situations, new designs and new systems needed to improve performance. Art, therefore, is the ‘know-how' or ‘technique' to achieve a desired result. The most productive art is always based on an understanding of the science underlying it.
Art implies application of...