Maratha Incursions Essay

1494 words - 6 pages

University of Delhi
In the last few decades there has been an outpouring of literature on medieval Rajasthan in general and the Amber/Jaipur state in particular. Most of these scholars have largely focused on the agrarian economy and revenue administration. However, some scholars have paid attention to the process of state formation. Though some research has been done on the impact of Maratha incursions into Rajasthan during the late eighteenth century, the focus is largely on the issue of extraction of tribute from the Rajput states by the Marathas. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss and analyse the multi-dimensional consequences of the Maratha incursions on the economy ...view middle of the document...

The war of succession between Ishwari Singh, the elder son of Sawai Jai Singh and Madho Singh (younger son of Sawai Jai Singh) paved the way for a prolonged intervention of the Marathas in the turbulent politics of Rajasthan. Ishwari Singh was backed by the Jats of Bharatpur whereas Madho Singh was supported by his maternal uncle (mama), the Rana of Udaipur. The Marathas intervened on behalf of Madho Singh who had promised to pay a nazar of Rs. 10 lakhs to the Peshwa. Ishwari Singh was defeated in the Battle of Baghra. He promised to cede five parganas to Madho Singh and a huge amount of money to the Marathas. When Malhar Rao Holkar marched to Jaipur to recover this sum, Ishwari Singh instead of facing the Marathas committed suicide on 12 December 1750. Madho Singh succeeded his brother. The unfolding of subsequent events clearly indicates that the Marathas interventions was motivated due to fiscal considerations.
The demands of Marathas were unending. After Madho Singh was placed on the throne it was decided that Sawai Madho Singh would pay rupees ten lakhs to the Marathas. The pargana of Rampura which was given to Madho Singh by the Mewar ruler was now transferred by Sawai Madho Singh to Malhar Rao Holkar. But soon Marathas made new exorbitant demands on Jaipur. They asked Madho Singh to hand over at least one-fourth of the territories of Jaipur to them. Madho Singh was so fed up with the rising demand of the Peshwa that on 10 January, 1751, he ordered a general massacre of the Marathas living in the city of Jaipur, About 3,000 Marathas were slaughtered and 1,000 were wounded. The Marathas soon realized the grimness of the situation and offered to leave Jaipur on the payment of 12 lakhs of rupees. From October, 1753, The Marathas frequently intruded into Jaipur territories and demanded more money as Chauth. Whenever pressurized, Madho Singh promised to pay huge sum to the Marathas to buy peace. However, Madho Singh never fulfilled his promise in toto. The Marathas also repeatedly ravaged the Jaipur territories in order to recover the outstanding arrears. Thus many battles were fought between the Marathas and the Kachhwahas till the end of the eighteenth century. On each occasion the Marathas extorted huge sums of money from the Jaipur state. The Jaipur state agreed to pay Rs 42,45,700 in 1750; Rs 10,43,000 in 1751 and Rs 13,50,000 in 1753 respectively to the Marathas. However, it is evident from the primary documents that the promised amount was not paid completely.
A thorough perusal of the payments made to the Marathas by the Jaipur state revealed interesting information. In 1743 A.D. after the death of Sawai Jai Singh, Madho Singh invited Marathas to help him in the war of succession and promised to pay a tribute of Rs.10 lakhs. But this amount was never paid. In 1750 A.D. a sum of Rs.2 lakhs and 10 lakhs (outstanding dues) was promised as a tribute but never paid. In 1753 A.D. again an amount of Rs.16.5 lakhs was promised as...

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