PRINCIPLES OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Do a Performance Improvement Analysis
Measure the frequency of behavior (what the individual says or the physical movements made) and the outputs (the physical evidence of completed work produced by those behaviors) prior to any management change. This analysis can be done for just one behavior and output or for many by job category, department and organization. Through this analysis, one measures present performance, establishes standards, specifies why behavior is deficient, calculates the net economic value of improvement after the cost of solutions, and places them in priority order. The result of this analysis is identification of potentially ...view middle of the document...
Provide feedback on performance to the individual involved and to the individual's manager, supervisor, or group leader, rapidly-preferably immediately-with sufficient information to allow for self-correction. Too often, feedback systems for many key behaviors and outputs are either absent or flawed.
Deliver Positive Consequences
Deliver to each individual positive consequence immediately after completion of the performance of the desired behaviors and outputs. The frequency of an individual's behavior is affected by the consequences that follow it. If the consequences are positive to that individual, the behavior tends to increase; if they are negative, the behavior tends to decrease. Consequences should be delivered for as long as the performance is desired, or until naturally occurring consequences are strong enough to support the behavior. How frequently you provide positive consequences is determined by how often the behavior occurs, the phase of behavior change you are in (causing the first new behavior to occur, changing its frequency, or maintaining it) and the pattern of responses you desire (steady, maximum output, peak for certain periods.
Unfortunately, in many organizations the wrong consequence system is in place. Consequences of desired behavior are often negative or neutral. Undesired behavior may be rewarded. The reinforces are badly delayed. They are delivered only on a group basis (annual company-wide profit sharing). The rewards are short-lived for behavior that is desired long-term. And almost always the positive reinforcement is too infrequent.
MONITORING AND EVALUATING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Performance measurement analyzes the success of a work group, program, or organization's efforts by comparing data on what actually happened to what was planned or intended measurement. While, Performance management uses performance information to manage organizational capacity and processes: for example, to review programs; assesses and revises goals and objectives; progress against targets; conduct employee evaluations; and formulate and justify budgets. Performance measurement is needed as a management tool to clarify goals, document the contribution toward achieving those goals, and the benefits received from the investment in each program. Therefore, performance measurement (management for results) seeks to assess, verify and demonstrate results, while performance management (management by results) focuses more on experimentation, innovation, process, learning and responsiveness. Thus, performance management helps set agreed-upon performance goals, allocate and prioritize resources to meet those goals, and report on the success in meeting those goals.
Monitoring is defined as a continuing function that aims primarily to provide the management and main stakeholders of an ongoing intervention with early indications of progress, or lack thereof, in the achievement of results. An ongoing...