Metaphysical Premises And Types Of Liberal Ideology: Liberalism As The End And Liberalism As The Way

3739 words - 15 pages

Metaphysical Premises And Types Of Liberal Ideology: Liberalism As The End And Liberalism As The Way

ABSTRACT: The problem of choosing the way for our country unavoidably brings us to a discussion of the problem of liberalism. At first glance, this should not be a problem since liberal principles underlie Western society and are the basis of the modern world order. But this opinion is not shared by all intellectuals in Russia. First is the specificity of the Russian mentality, social consciousness and social life. The idea of 'Russia's own way' is much referred to by various political movements of pronounced nationalist color, but we have to study this idea at its deepest level rather than ...view middle of the document...

First of the two is specificity of Russian mentality, Russian social consciousness, and generally all Russian social life. The idea of Russia's own way is, true, much used by various political movements of pronounced nationalist color, but we have to study this idea to the most possible deepness to not be oversimplifying the reality. It was common among all political groups and movements to state Russia's special historical fate and ways. Even the most westernly oriented political thinkers, though insisted on the adoption of Western values and standards, strongly criticized European civilization at the same time (so did Hertzen in his late years, for example). It was as if Russia, after having adopted the said values, had to show true way to the Western society itself, true meaning of its mental achievements discredited by the real things in the life of the West. So the difference between the Westernly oriented and the nationalist political people was a mere difference in understanding Russia's specificity and where it lies exactly, no the specificity as a fact. We even may cite Lenin's plan of building the socialism separately in Russia for she was, in his opinion, a unique country, the weakest link of the world imperialist chain.

The other reason why we should think the problem exists is that the same term of liberalism does not mean any simple thing. Being rather complex ideological system, liberalism has much diverged in the course of evolution, both in theory and in political practice. We can see at least three different forms of liberal ideology. First, classic liberalism as developed by J.Lock; second, liberalism of the break of century that combined the ideal of liberty with that of social equity and so accepted the necessity of the State's active intervention into social processes; last, so-called new liberalism, propagated specially by F.Hayek, who declared the above intervention harmful, which is exactly opposite to the preceding socially oriented liberalism. The fact of the two concurring forms of liberal ideology in the 20th century evidences that some kind of crisis takes place, so the problem of choice could not be thought too simple even for Western old democratic societies, the more for Russia that is not.

In our current disputed about the right way, the problem under consideration is adequately assessed as being not simple, but without any sufficient results in understanding deep reasons of the choice to be made, which is commonly treated as a mere more or less effective means of solving current political problems. However, the principles of social organization are strictly coordinated with very fundamental truths of existence and final reasons of man's being. This is why have we to analyze the metaphysical promises of corresponding political doctrines. For the purposes of this paper, the most significant is the analysis of liberal ideas made by Russian religious philosophers of late 19th and early 20th century, first and...

Other Essays Like Metaphysical Premises And Types Of Liberal Ideology: Liberalism As The End And Liberalism As The Way

International Affairs Have Been the Nemesis of Liberalism. the Essence of Liberalism Is Self-Restraint, Moderation, Compromise and Peace Whereas the Essence of International Politics Is Exactly the...

1491 words - 6 pages political system, and how each one effects or not effect us. Realism and liberalism are the two central paradigms in International Relations. They have differing ideas when it comes to explaining how states associate themselves and with each other in the absence of a world government. The realist ideology looks to give emphasis to the conservation of the nation state by seeing that sovereign dominance is a compulsory for its survival, where in

Premises and Conclusions of Crito Essay

525 words - 3 pages Premises and Conclusions of Crito Mildred Rubley Ashford University Informal Logic PHI 103 Jennifer Hacker April 12, 2014 Premises and Conclusions of Crito Socrates was convicted, sent to jail, and a waiting to be executed. Two days before Socrates was to be executed, his friend Crito came to see him. This is where Crito presents his argument to Socrates about escaping from prison. Crito explains that plans were in place for the

Evaluate the Strengths and Weaknesses of Reason as a Way of Knowing

1486 words - 6 pages extent as there are strengths and weaknesses in the case of reason as a way of obtaining knowledge. in thee, Not in themselves, all thir known vertue appeers Productive in Herb, Plant, and nobler birth Of Creatures animate with gradual life Of Growth, Sense, Reason, all summ'd up in Man Milton in “Paradise Lost” says that God made man superior to animals by endowing him with reason. Satan persuaded Eve by stressing that the

Is It the End of Dollar as World's Reserve Currency

1131 words - 5 pages Is it the end of Dollar as world's reserve currency? What is Reserve Currency? A currency, held in considerable quantities by different governments, as part of their foreign exchange reserves. It is also used for the products traded in global markets such as oil, gold etc. Reserve currency is also called as ‘Anchor Currency’. US Dollar as Reserve Currency: Traditionally, US Dollar has been regarded as the reserve currency and for more than

To What Extent Have Modern Liberals Departed from the Ideas of Classical Liberalism? (45)

935 words - 4 pages individual was sovereign over the state in deciding what was best for them. However, individualism is stressed much less through modern liberalism. Modern liberal thinkers such as T H Green and John Rawls have swayed closer towards collectivism. Modern liberals tend to have a more optimistic view on human nature in the sense that individuals value the importance of social obligation especially with those who are less able to provide or look after

Assess sociological explanations of science and ideology as a belief systems

1818 words - 8 pages Assess sociological explanations of science and ideology as a belief system. Science has obviously had a massive impact on the world and some sociologists argue that science is a open belief while some sociologists argue that science is instead a closed belief system, resisting change. A belief system is a set of beliefs and ideas that help people to make sense of an interpret the world, for example, Christianity believes that God created

Fuch's The American Way of Families: Is the Dream Really as Sweet as Apple Pie?

1237 words - 5 pages Fuch's "The American Way of Families": Is the Dream Really as Sweet as Apple Pie?      There were a few aspects of Lawrence H. Fuchs's essay The American Way of Families that I found extraordinarily interesting. He discusses influences of the modern American family that I found quite bizarre. Fuch also labels the key component to the American family as being none other than the gratification and pursuit of

Democracy as Political Ideology

2100 words - 9 pages What is Ideology? The term ideology has a long, complex and extraordinary rich history. According to Wikipedia free online Encyclopedia define it, "An ideology is a collection of ideas". The word ideology was coined by Count Destutt de Tracy in the late 18th century to define a "science of ideas." An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things (compare Weltanschauung), as in common sense and

Examination Of The Declaration Of Independence As Both A Historical Document And As Revolutionary Propaganda

494 words - 2 pages The Declaration of Independence is one of the most renowned and beloved documents in United States history. Even today, people cherish their "unalienable rights" as symbols of America at her best. The Declaration of Independence was a major step towards secession from Britain in the American Revolution, and has had profound influence on the country's development ever since. The grand rhetoric in the first part spurred the formation and

Evolution and philosophy have a relationship as old as the idea of evolution itself

261 words - 2 pages This is partly due to the fact that science and philosophy only separated about the time evolutionary theories were being first proposed, but also because - especially in the Darwinian context - evolution was opposed to many cherished philosophical doctrines.The first main criticisms of evolution lay in the idea that species were eternal types, and so by definition species could not change. More recently, criticisms have rested on the notion of

The Ideology of God

3699 words - 15 pages But I always think that the best way to know is to love many things (Vincent va gough)Compare in which the two novels present the influence of God. The ideology of God is expressed in many different contexts throughout the novel, many of the characters exploit the qualities of God and often became reliant on his power. However it can also be seen as something to fall back on or a foundation, this applies mainly to Kambili and Celie, two

Related Papers

Liberalism As An Ideology Essay

1945 words - 8 pages Liberalism - an ideology born in the philosophical revolution to advance equality and individual libertyThe origin of the political ideology that found its name in nineteenth century Spain -Liberales - is found much earlier as a philosophical response to the individual restrictions of medieval Europe (Ball & Dagger, 43). The majority of people living in Europe were controlled by the Catholic Church as "religious and political authorities

Socialism And Liberalism Essay

719 words - 3 pages ideology where citizens are best served by policies focused on meeting the basic needs of the entire society rather than by policies focused on serving the needs of individuals as individuals. (Grigsby, 2011) Liberalism arose from the writings of John Locke who believed in a limited government and protection of the rights of individuals, this is known as Classical Liberalism. This theory was expanded on in the 19th century and became known as

The Impact Of Liberalism On International Relations

2052 words - 9 pages this (Mingst, 2008). This was probably the beginning of a coherent belief in a sort of union of sovereign states. Toward the end of the seventeenth century William Penn believed a ‘diet’ (parliament) could be set up in Europe, like the European Union of today (Baylis and Smith, 2001). We can see much of this liberal thinking today in organizations such as the United Nations. Another influential work to have an impact on liberal thinking was

'liberalism Is Closely Associated With The Protection Of Human Rights And The Promotion Of Constitutional Reform' Discuss (30)

1045 words - 5 pages culture which is both tolerant and pluralistic. The pillars on which liberalism was built on suggest that the protection of human rights as well as the promotion of constitutional reform is both intrinsic in liberal aims and ideology. Liberals championed the idea of constitutional reform links to Constitutionalism which refers to the practice of limited government brought about by the existence of a constitution that aims to protect individuals