METHODS OF RESEARCH
1. Historical Method
Purpose: To reconstruct the past objectively and accurately, often in relation to the tenability of a hypothesis.
Example: A study reconstructing practices in the study of social studies in the Philippines during the past fifty years; tracing the history of agrarian reform in the Philippines; Philippine education since 1946; testing the hypotheses that Francis Bacon is the real author of the “Works of William Shakespeare”.
2. Descriptive Method
Purpose: To describe systematically a situation or area of interest factually and accurately.
Examples: Population census studies, public opinion surveys, fact-finding surveys, status ...view middle of the document...
5. Correlational method
Purpose: To investigate the extent to which variations in one factor correlate with variations in one or more other factors based on correlation coefficient.
Examples: To investigate relationships between reading achievement scores and one or more variables of interest; a factor-analytic study of several intelligence tests; a study to predict success in college based on inter-correlation patterns between college grades and selected high school variables.
6. Casual-comparative or “Ex post facto” method
Purpose: To investigate possible cause and effect relationships by observing some existing consequence and looking back through the data for plausible causal factors.
Examples: To identify factors related to the “drop-out” problems in a particular high school using data from records over the past ten years; to investigate similarities and differences between such groups as smokers and nonsmokers, readers and nonreaders, or delinquents and nondelinquents, using data on file.
7. The Experimental method
Purpose: To investigate possible cause and effect relationships by exposing one or more experimental groups to one or more treatment conditions and comparing the results to one or more control groups not receiving the treatment, random assignment being essential.
Examples: To investigate the effectiveness of three methods of teaching reading to first grade children using random assignments...