Middle Childhood and Adolescence
The introduction of middle childhood and adolescence, a crucial period of development, for the child and parent can become a time of uncertainty. The parenting styles of the parent makes a difference in the out-come of the child. All children need parents that care about them. The different parenting styles include; authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative. In the best interest of the child’s development, parents have to make an evaluation of the parenting methods ...view middle of the document...
Children’s confidence begins to build as they accomplish each mild stone in their development. “Children typically appreciate their parents, make new friends, and are proud of themselves, not only in terms of their nationality, gender, and ethnicity.”(Berger, 2010). But some school-age children have to struggle with special educational needs, family issues, coping with poverty or bullying.
Functional and Dysfunctional Families
When a child’s family is functional, their development progresses smoothly. With support from a functional family, a child can develop well, and in some cases excel. A relationship between a child and a functional family unit helps foster self-esteem in the child. While the parent finds reward in their child’s achievements, the child is encouraged by the progress of their development. When a child is encouraged, they are en route to a lifetime of meaningful work. “Often people who marry and stay married have personal and financial strengths that also make them better parents.”(Berger, 2010).
In contrast a child being part of a dysfunctional family; “It is estimated that over seven million American adolescents—one in four—are vulnerable to multiple high-risk behaviors and school failure, while another seven million are at moderate risk (Carnegie Council, 1989; Husain & Cantwell, 1992). In today’s society, adolescents are apt to become involved with damaging behaviors, particularly those associated with alcohol, drugs, sexual activity, sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy.”(2000). Regardless of structure, any family can function well, but a family that does not support all its members is called dysfunctional. “In every nation and with every type of family, three factors increase the likelihood that a family will be dysfunctional; low income, low stability, and low harmony (Teachman, 2008b).”(Berger, 2010). Unfortunately dysfunctional families exist, and often that dysfunction is passed down through generations. Children tend to learn unhealthy behaviors from dysfunctional family members. “Worldwide, the United Nations estimates that about 2 million children and adolescents die accidentally each year (Peden et al., 2008). Millions more are abused or neglected.”(Berger, 2010).
During the transition from middle childhood to adolescence, the positive and negative impact of peers and peer relations vary. “Young children play best with peers; people of about the same age and social status as themselves. Peers provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding (D. Cohen, 2006).”(Berger, 2010). Getting along with...