Midterm Notes Essay

2128 words - 9 pages

MIDTERM EXAM (16-21)
1. Gluconeogenesis
1. The formation of glucose especially by the liver from fats(glycerol) and protein(amino acid)
2. Corisol’s prime metabolic effect is to provoke gluconeogenesis
3. Synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and from noncarboyhydate molecules-major target of glucagon in the liver
4. A reaction that occurs in the hypoglycemic state to make glucose available
2. Hypothalmic hypophyseal tract
5. A nerve bundle which runs through the infundibulm
6. Arises from neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
7. Neural connection to hypothalamus
8. Hypophyseal portal system
...view middle of the document...

ADH hypersecretion (after neurosurgery, trauma, or secreted by cancer cells)—syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

Gonadocorticoid(Sex hormones)
a. Most are androgens (male sex hormones) that are converted to testosterone in tissue cells or estrogens in females
b. May contribute to
c. The onset of puberty
d. The appearance of secondary sex characteristics
e. Sex drive

ACTH (adrenocorticotroic hormone)
1. Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release steroid hormones
2. The adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the adrenal gland, secretes aldosterone [Na+ & K balance], cortisol [glucose, protein & lipid metabolism; the "stress hormone"] & sex hormones [including dehydroepiandrosterone]

Second messenger
a. cAMP signaling mechanism
a. Hormone (first messenger) binds to receptor
b. Receptor activates G protein
c. G protein activates adenylate cyclase
d. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP (second messenger)
e. cAMP activates protein kinases
b. cAMP signaling mechanism
* Activated kinases phosphorylate various proteins, activating some and inactivating others
* cAMP is rapidly degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase
* Intracellular enzymatic cascades have a huge amplification effect
c. PIP2-calcium signaling mechanism
* Used by some amino acid–based hormones in some tissues
* Involves a G protein
* G protein activates phospholipase C enzyme
d. Phospholipase splits membrane phospholipid PIP2 into two second messengers: diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP3
* DAG activates protein kinases; IP3 triggers release of Ca2+
* Ca2+ alters enzymes or channels or binds to the regulatory protein calmodulin
4. Electrolyte Maintenance

Upregulation & downregulation of hormones

5. Parent cell of formed element
12. Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis): blood cell formation
f. Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
13. Hemocytoblasts (hematopoietic stem cells)
g. Give rise to all formed elements
h. Hormones and growth factors push the cell toward a specific pathway of blood cell development
i. New blood cells enter blood sinusoids

Erythropoietin
a. Erythropoietin (EPO)
b. Direct stimulus for erythropoiesis
c. Released by the kidneys in response to hypoxia
d. Erythropoietin stimulates red bone marrow.

Stages of RBC Development
1. Low O2, levels in blood stimulate kidneys to produce erythropoietin
2. Erythropoietin levels rise in blood
3. Erythropoietin and necessary raw materials in blood promote erythropoiesis in red bone marrow
4. New erythrocytes enter bloodstream; function about 120 days
5. Ages and damaged red blood cells are engulfed by macrophages of liver, spleen, and bone...

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