1. Describe three ways in which information systems are transforming business.
Transformation of Industrial Economies
While leading companies achieve competitive advantage through investments in IT, some are indeed negatively affected by this trend in technology. Today, customers have other preferences hence, old landline communications companies have lessen its customers; travel agencies have reduced over-the-counter sales; and entertainment industries, particularly music and film have lower revenues these past few years as compared with that in the past. But despite of these, technology convergence arises in many ways. IT has broken down boundaries and business relationships while new ...view middle of the document...
Furthermore, easy communications systems help businesses attract services provided by another firm. Referring to previous example (the manufacturing firm), outsourcing production and transportation is a smart option to reduce transaction cost and/or maintenance cost. Outsourcing results to networked firms, work collaboration and teamwork, which could further result to location independence among modern businesses.
Products and services are not just confined to restricted one area but are now being distributed worldwide. Industries find global market possible. Modern technology provides reliable, cheap and efficient communication systems. The Internet is a better avenue to introduce one’s company and its products or services. Accessible information allows businesses compare prices among suppliers and negotiate costs on various services such as couriers and transportation. There are relatively a lot of financial services that makes customer payment convenient. Connectivity and information systems have opened the global market but, global standard is a serious challenge that is yet to develop nowadays.
2. What are the characteristics of MIS? How do MIS differ from TPS and DSS?
Characteristics of a Management Information System
• Provides reports with fixed and standard formats
o Hard-copy and soft-copy reports
• Uses internal data stored in the computer system
• End users can develop custom reports
• Requires formal requests from users
Management Information Systems for Competitive Advantage
• Provides support to managers as they work to achieve corporate goals
• Enables managers to compare results to established company goals and identify problem areas and opportunities for improvement
• MIS is an integrated collection of functional information systems, each supporting particular functional areas.
A Transaction Processing System (or Transaction Processing Monitor) monitors transaction programs, a special kind of programs. The essence of a transaction program is that it manages data that must be left in a consistent state. E.g. if an electronic payment is made, the amount must be either both withdrawn from one account and added to the other, or none at all. In case of a failure preventing transaction completion, the partially executed transaction must be 'rolled back' by the TPS. While this type of integrity must be provided also for batch transaction processing, it is particularly important for online processing: if e.g. an airline seat reservation system is accessed by multiple operators, after an empty seat inquiry, the seat reservation data must be locked until the reservation is made, otherwise another user may get the impression a seat is still free while it is actually being booked at the time. Without proper transaction monitoring, double bookings may occur. Other transaction monitor functions include deadlock detection and resolution (deadlocks may be inevitable in...