The HRM Models
← There are a good number of models that have been postulated by various scholars to describe the HRM concept.
← However, as shall be seen these various models either fall under the soft or the hard approach of HRM.
The Harvard Model
← The Harvard Model was postulated by Beer et al (1984) at Harvard University.
← The authors of the model also coined it the map of HRM territory.
← The Harvard model acknowledges the existence of multiple stakeholders within the organization.
← These multiple stakeholders include shareholders various groups of employees, government and the community at large.
← It is thus important to note that the Harvard model is premised on the belief that it is the organization’s human resources that give competitive advantage through treating them as assets and not costs.
The Michigan/Matching Model
← The Michigan model was propounded by Fombrun Tichy and Devanna (1984) at the Michigan Business School.
← They also named this model a matching model of HRM.
← Precisely, the matching aspect of this model demonstrates that the model is inclined towards the harder side of HRM.
← This is because the matching model emphaizes more on “tight fit” between the HR strategy and the buisness strategy.
← NB It demands that available human resources must be matched with jobs in the organization.
← The HR strategy must be highly calculative in terms of the quantity of the human resources required to achieve the objectives enshrined in the business strategy.
← Business strategy takes the central stage in this model hence human resources are taken like any other resource which must be fully utilised together with the other resoruces to achieve organizational objectives.
← (Evans and Lorange, 1989) argue that the Michigan model is based on the “product market logic” which demands that to gain high profits labour must be obtained cheaply, used sparingly, developed and exploited fully.
The Matching Model of HRM
← The point of departure in the Michigan Model is the pre-eminence and pre-dominance of a business strategy, which must strictly be achieved by the available resources regardless of whether, they are able to do so or not.
← In fact the business strategy must be achieved through minimum labour costs enhanced by structural re-organization, Performance Related Pay and staff reduction.
The Guest Model
The Guest model was propounded by David Guest in 1987.
← This model is a fusion of aspects that resemble both a hard and a soft approach of HRM.
← Guest proposes 4 crucial components that underpin organizational effectiveness.
← These 4 crucial components are: -
1. Strategic Integration
← This is the ability of organizations to maintain a fit between the HRM strategy and the business strategy. In other words, there must be congruence between business strategy and the HR strategy for the organization to achieve its goals.
← Strategic integration shows the harder side of the Guest Model.
← This is precisely because human resources are treated in a similar manner like any other resource with the prime goal of achieving business objectives.
← Thus there are implications of labour exploitation.
← Flexibility is basically concerned with the ability of the organization and its people to adapt to the changing business and work...