Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi |
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, 1940s |
Born | 2 October 1869(1869-10-02)
Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency, British India |
Died | 30 January 1948 (agedÂ 78)
New Delhi, Union of India |
CauseÂ of death | Assassination |
Resting place | Rajghat in New Delhi |
Nationality | Indian |
Other names | Mahatma Gandhi, Bapu |
Alma mater | University College London, University of London |
KnownÂ for | Prominent Figure of Indian Independence Movement
Propounding the philosophy of Satyagraha and Ahimsa |
Religious beliefs | Hinduism |
Spouse(s) | Kasturba Gandhi |
Children | Harilal
Parents | Putlibai Gandhi (Mother)
Karamchand Gandhi (Father) |
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Hindi: à¤®à¥‹à¤¹à¤¨à¤¦à¤¾à¤¸ ...view middle of the document...
Gandhi is commonly known around the world as Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit: à¤®à¤¹à¤¾à¤¤à¥à¤®à¤¾ mahÄtmÄ or "Great Soul", an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore), and in India also as Bapu (Gujarati: àª¬àª¾àªªà«, bÄpu or "Father"). He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence.
Gandhi first employed non-violent civil disobedience while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400Â km (240Â mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. Later, in 1942, he launched the Quit India civil disobedience movement demanding immediate independence for India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.
As a practitioner of ahimsa, he swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same. Gandhi lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, eventually adopting a fruitarian diet, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification as well as social protest.