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Monograph Of Ganoderma Lucidum Essay

2366 words - 10 pages

1.0 Definition
Ganoderma luicidum can be described as Gano – brightness or sheen and derma – skin (Greek). While lucidum means shining in Latin. It is a polypore mushroom which is from the family Polyporaceae. [1]

2.0 Synonyms
Reishi, Lingzhi, Ling Chi, Lacquered Bracket, Mannentake, and “Mushroom of Immortality”. [1]

3.0 Selected vernacular names
Reishi or Mannentake (Japan), Ling Chi, Ling Chih, or Ling Zhi (Chinese and Koreans). [1]

4.0 Geographical Distribution
Widely found and cultivated in temperate zones throughout the northern hemisphere from USA, Canada, Europe, Asia to Japan. It can also be found in the mountains of Central Africa. [1]

5.0 Description: Plant ...view middle of the document...

Length of tube layer showed from very short to long. [2]

6.2 Organoleptic properties
Colour: brown yellow powder; Odour: characteristics; Taste: slightly bitter taste. [2]

6.3 Microscopic Characteristics
Cutis: short and clavate cutis elements of 20–40×7–15 µm and hymeniodermiformic cutis. Bovista-type ligative hyphae. Echinulate basidiospores of 9.0–11.5×6.0–8.0 µm cum myxosp. and 6.5–8.5×5.0–6.5 µm sine myxosp. Clear and bright colored of tubular channels, reddish brown spores are evenly distributed in the channels. [2]

6.4 Powdered Plant Materials
No data available.

7.0 Chromatographic fingerprinting and general identity tests
Chemical tests and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) can be carried out to test for the presence of polysaccharides and triterpenoids (ganoderic acid). [3]

8.0 Qualitative Tests, Quantitative Tests and Environmental Residues

8.1 Microbiological
No data available.

8.2 Chemical
Not less than 7.92% of crude proteins[4]
8.3 Foreign organic matter
No data available.

8.4 Ash contents
Not more than 1.77%.[4]

8.5 Water-soluble extractives (Carbohydrate)
Not less than 21.83%[4]

8.6 Alcohol-soluble extractives (Fat)
Not more than 5.13%[4]

8.7 Loss on drying
Not more than 9.54%[4]

8.8 Pesticide residues
No data available.

8.9 Heavy Metal
Not more than 10.2% (K, Mg and Ca are the major components with Ge having the 5th highest metal concentration at 489 μg/g). [5]

8.10 Radioactive residues
No data available.

8.11 Other purity test
No data available.

9.0 Chemical assays
Qualitative tests for Ganoderma lucidum includes high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with chemmetrics methods. Besides, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) can also be used. Quantitative analysis for triterpenoids involves reversed-phase liquid chromatography. [5]

10.0 Chemical Constituents
The major constituents are polysaccharides (Beta-D-glucans) and triterpenoids (Ganoderic acids). Other constituents include riboflavin, ascorbic acids, amino acids, lipids, alkaloids, glucosides, coumarins and volatile oil. [6]

Figure 2: 1,3 beta-D-glucans

Figure 3: Ganoderic Acid Backbone

11.0 Dosage forms
Ingested: syrup, tea, tablets, capsules, bolus or tincture. Injected: solution of powdered spore. [7]

12.0 Storage
In a well closed container, must be stored in cool and dry condition but cannot be stored under refrigerated. [8]

13.0 Medicinal uses
Treatment as anticancer, antiatherosclerotic, analgesic, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV), anti-ulcer properties, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, immunomodulating and sleeppromoting. Treatment of carcinoma, diabetes, hepatitis and leukemia. Treatment of asthma, anorexia, arthritis, bronchitis, coronary heart...

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