1. Morphology and syntax as a part of grammar. Main units of grammar and types of relations between grammatical units in language and speech.
The term grammar can be defined in both wide and narrow senses. In its narrow sence grammar is a set of rules for correct use of words and making sentences. In wide sense grammar is a system of word changing and other means of expressing relations of words in a sentence.
If to talk about grammar in its wide sense( as a system), it can be divided into 2 subsystems or parts: morphology and syntax.
Morphology ...view middle of the document...
are recursive ( Ex: boy-ish-ness)
in the word-structure always precede inflectional ones: novel- ist- s .
2. word- a morphological unit, consisting of morphemes.
Talking about words and their place in the paradigm of grammar units one must distinguish between word and grammeme, the term applied to I.B. Khlebnikova. When we speak about the word as a grammeme we disregard its lexical meaning, but concentrate on the grammatical information it gives. Ex: speaks- 3 person singular, present tence.
3. phrase- a smaller syntactical unit, a group of words which have a particular meaning when used together. The subject and predicate of the sentence don`t form a phrase of their own.
Ex: a green car
4. sentence- the largest syntactic unit of grammar.
Structurally sentences can be divided into following types:
I. Simple sentence- a sentence with one main clause.(It snowed last night.)
1.1 one-member sentence- sentence containing only one principal part which is neither subject nor predicate.
a) nominal – princioal part is expressed by noun or adjective(Midnight. English summer rain. )
b) verbal – principal part is expressed by a non- finite verb form, either an infinitive or a gerund.( Living such a life! To think of that!)
1.2 two-member sentence- basic pattern of simple sentence, one subject-predicate unit. (The child laughed. Mary caught the ball. )
a) complete- possessing all word-forms in subject and predicate positions.
b)elliptical(incomplete) – sentence in which one or more word-forms in subject or predicate positions are omitted. (Looks like rain.)
II. Composite sentence – sentence consisting of more than one clause.
1.1 Compound sentence– with two or more main clauses. ( He should have been here at five and he is not here yet.)
1.2 Complex sentence – a sentence with main and one or more subordinate clauses.( I`ve done a...