ABRAHAM MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
According to this theory, individual strives to seek a higher need when lower needs are fulfilled. Once a lower-level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a source of motivation. Needs are motivators only when they are unsatisfied.
In the first level, physiological needs exist which include the most basic needs for humans to survive, such as air, water and food.
In the second level, safety needs exist which include personal security, health, well-being and safety against accidents remain.
In the third level, belonging needs exist. This is where people need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance. It is about relationships, families and ...view middle of the document...
This is the beauty of Maslow’s theory of motivation. Employee needs change with time. This means that managers must continually adapt to employees’ changing needs if they want to keep their workforce motivated. Maslow understood these truths!
ALDERFER’S ERG THEROY
In 1969, Clayton P. Alderfer, simplified Maslow’s theory by categorizing hierarchy of needs into three categories.
The existence group is concerned with our basic requirements. Alderfer categorized physiological and safety needs as Existence Needs.
The relatedness group is concerned with our desire for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. Alderfer categorized social needs as Relatedness Needs.
The growth group is concerned with our intrinsic desire to for personal growth. Alderfer categorized esteem and self-actualization needs as Growth Needs.
Alderfers ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may be working at the same time. The ERG theory also acknowledges that if a higher-level need is blocked, then the individuals will invest more effort in in a lower category need. For example if self-actualization or self-esteem needs are not met then individuals will invest more effort in the relatedness category.
The ERG framework recognizes that the significance of the three categories may vary from individual to another. Managers must understand that an employee has various needs that must be satisfied at the same time. According to the ERG theory, if the manager concentrates solely on one need at a time, this will not effectively motivate the employee.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
Frederick Herzberg introduced his Two Factor Theory in 1959. He suggested that there are two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways:
Hygiene factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation. But the absence of Hygiene factors can cause dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors are all about making an employee feel comfortable, secure and happy. They are closely connected with the job environment.
* Company’s policies and administration.
* Working conditions.
* Job security.
* Quality of supervision.
Motivators lead to satisfaction and are rarely the cause of dissatisfaction. Motivators are directly concerned with the satisfaction gained from a job.
* Recognition for accomplishment.
* Increased responsibility.
* Opportunity for growth and development.
* Creative and challenging work.
A manager should provide sufficient hygiene factors while building satisfiers or motivators at the same time. Because hygiene factors are necessary to make sure that subordinates are not dissatisfied, and satisfiers are needed to motivate an employee to work towards a higher level of performance. It’s all about finding the right balance.
To eliminate things which cause employee...