Motivation within Tesco as an organisation – RESUBMISSION
Comparison between motivational theories
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory assumes that man is basically a wanting animal seeking to satisfying needs both in social and working life. We are motivated toward satisfying these needs. He theorised that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs. These needs are Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem and self-actualisation. Physiological needs includes all physical needs of the human body required to live like food, water, shelter, clothing, sex etc. Need to be safe include security and protection from physical and emotional harm, a sense of security. Social needs ...view middle of the document...
Incidents involving the work itself, achievement, promotion, recognition and responsibilities were mentioned as a source of satisfaction and incidents involving inter-personal relations, working conditions, supervisors, salary and company policies came out to be causes of job dissatisfaction.
Herzberg believed that an individual's relation to work is basic and that one's attitude toward work can very well determine success or failure. He investigated what people want from their jobs. He concluded that Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg employers like Tesco who seek to eliminate factors that lead to job dissatisfaction may bring peace but not motivation. They will be placating their workforce rather than motivating them. As a result conditions surrounding job such as pay, company policy, quality of supervision, working conditions etc. were characterised by Herzberg as Hygiene factors, and motivating factors include achievement, responsibility, work itself, recognition and advancement.
In these theories both Maslow and Herzberg are showing that there is a link between individual needs and work rewards. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory was the basis upon which Herzberg conducted research and derived the Motivation-Hygiene theory or Two Factor theory.
In contrast to Maslow's view that individuals are born with a well-ordered hierarchy of needs which motivate people, Herzberg argued that an individual's relation to work is basic and that one's attitude can determine his success or failure. Maslow focused on the needs of man to be satisfied by their jobs, while Herzberg enquired to find what people want from their jobs. Herzberg found that it is not needs of individuals but his expectations from the job. He said that the opposite of ‘satisfaction' is not ‘dissatisfaction' but ‘no satisfaction' and opposite of ‘dissatisfaction, is ‘no dissatisfaction' completely against the traditional view. He believed factors that come under as motivators lead to satisfaction and that the hygiene factors decrease the amount of dissatisfaction. This means that good hygiene should be provided but this will yield benefits only up to a certain point, after which focus should be on motivating factors. Herzberg then combined the hygiene and motivation factors results in four possible scenarios; high hygiene with high motivation which is the ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints, high hygiene with low motivation is where employees have few complaints but they are not highly motivated, here the job is perceived as a pay check, low hygiene with high motivation where employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging but salary and work conditions are not up to par, low hygiene with low motivation which is the worst situation and the result is unmotivated employees with lots of...