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Musis Is A Universal Feature Of Human Life

2839 words - 12 pages

Ryan May 40010329 Music is a universal feature of human life and behavior, Discuss. Everybody on the planet has listened to music, the majority of people on the planet would listen to music everyday, either consciously, through MP3 players, CDʼs or on the radio. Many might listen to music subconsciously while in the car or just passing by a shop with music playing inside. Either way we are surrounded by the ʻnoiseʼ which has been based on three distinct and interrelated organizational structures of rhythm, harmony and melody. Music is perhaps the most common form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding music have been popular disciplines for people for thousands of ...view middle of the document...

“There is something about music that evolves over time, as do emotions. When we hear the song we relive the emotional sequence that happened when we first heard it”, says Professor John Siobode of Keele University. There are many other reasons why people experience particular emotions during a piece of music. These emotions are brought on by many things within the piece of music. The resemblance that counts most for music expressiveness ... is between musics temporally unfolding dynamic structure and configurations of human behavior associated with the

expressions of emotion (Davies 2006). Research by Helmholtz, Edmund Curney and Halbert H. Britain stated that emotions are triggered in listeners due to particular elements within the piece of music. In particular what mode the piece of music is played in. If the piece of music is in the major mode then the music is said to induce feelings of happiness, relaxation and calmness. This is partly due to the consonant notes used in the major mode in music. Music in the minor mode is known to induce feelings of sadness, apprehension or uneasiness. This is due to the dissonant sounds produced because of the minor mode of music used. According the Davies, music has an appearance of sadness, by a slow and quite downward movement, underlying patterns of unresolved tension, dark timbre, heavy or think harmonic bass textures. As stated earlier emotions can be brought on by listening to music by the memories associated with that piece of music, but they can also be brought on by many other things. There are many models used when describing how music effects our emotions. The ʻDarling there playing our songʼ theory is episodic memory where by a piece of music is attached to a particular memory. Juslin in his paper ʻEmotional responses to music: The need to consider underlying mechanismsʼ describes many more models. One model that he describes is the bran stem reflex. This model refers to a process whereby an emotion is induced by music because one or more fundamental acoustical characteristics of the music are taken by the brain stem to signal a potentially important and urgent event. This model ties in well with research by Helmholtz, Curney and Britain, where particular characteristics of the music induce particular emotions in the listener. According to a study by Berlyne Listeners will prefer musical stimuli that includes ʻoptimumʼ levels of physiological arousal. So any song that arouses particular emotions within the listener will be enjoyed more. Juslin describes many other models which are all related or similar in someway. Evaluative conditioning, where the listener has induced emotions to a piece of music because the music has been repeatedly paired with either positive or negative stimuli. Very similar to brian stem reflex in that the listener perceives the emotional expression of the music and then “mimics” theseʼs expressions internally.

Another model that Juslin describes is visual imagery....

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