Need Hierarchy Theory for Job Satisfaction
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. As per his theory these needs are:
• Physiological needs
These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied ...view middle of the document...
From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So if someone wants to motivate other one, need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level. Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and ease of understanding.
Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction
There are 6 main factors influencing on Job Satisfaction clustered as physical, psychological and environmental factors as below:
Psychological Factors and Job Satisfaction
• Health and Safety
Managing safe and healthy work environments is one of the most important environmental challenges facing organizations. Good health and safety brings more benefits that are healthy workers are more productive and can produce at a higher quality. According to Maslow’s‟ Hierarchy, physiological needs are the first stage in job satisfaction whereas long are the work place is healthy and safe, it will create a pleasant and secure impression in employee’s mind towards work.
• Job Nature
The main source of satisfaction is, of course, job itself. Researches, dedicated to job characteristics and carried out in correlation with working place projecting, testify that the very content of work and autonomy by its implementation represent two most important motivation factors correlated with labor. As research indicated, other main components of job satisfaction are interesting and difficult job without time for tedium and job giving a man one certain status.
Dealing with a workload that is far too heavy and deadlines that are impossible to reach can cause job satisfaction to erode for even the most dedicated employee. Falling short of deadlines results in conflict between employees and supervisors and raises the stress level of the workplace.
• Job Security
Job security is the assurance that a particular employee will have their job in long term due to the low probability of losing it potentially. Positive job security nature also adds more value to the image and the reputation of an organization as job offered has the guaranteed security and reliable. Also, job security has a great influence in increasing job satisfaction of its employees where once the employee is confident about not losing the job, it will create no mental stress where the employee has its own freedom to fully concentrate on the work they perform. „
An employee with a high level of job security will often performs and concentrates better than an employee who is in constant fear of losing a job. Although this fear can increase motivation in certain situations, a lack of job security can be a source of distraction and result in excess stress and low morale that hinders an employee's overall performance.
• Job promotion