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Negotiation Essay

1297 words - 6 pages

International & Cross-Cultural Negotiation

Haruthai Numprasertchai, Ph.D. Kasetsart University

International Negotiation: Art and Science
International negotiations are much more complex than domestic negotiations. They challenge the negotiators to understand the science of negotiation while developing their artistry.
• The science of negotiation provides research evidence to support broad trends that often, but not always, occur during negotiation. • The art of negotiation is deciding which strategy to apply when, and choosing which models and perspectives to apply to increase cross-cultural understanding.

Steps in International Negotiations

What Makes International ...view middle of the document...


Conceptualizing Culture and Negotiation
• Culture as learned behavior
– A catalogue of behaviors the foreign negotiator should expect


Culture as an Iceberg

Source: Adapted by Susan Schneider (HEC University of Geneva) from Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership, p. 14. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Instructor’s Manual with Overheads to accompany The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator 4/e (Thompson) Copyright ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Some American Values
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Equal opportunity Achievement and success Material comfort Activity and work Practicality and efficiency Progress Science Democracy and free enterprise Freedom

Priorities of Cultural Values: United States, Japan, and Arab Countries
United States
1.Freedom 2.Independence 3.Self-reliance 4.Equality 5.Individualism 6.Competition 7.Efficiency 8.Time 9.Directness 10.Openness

1.Belonging 2.Group harmony 3.Collectiveness 4.Age/Seniority 5.Group consensus 6.Cooperation 7.Quality 8.Patience 9.Indirectness 10.Go-between

Arab Countries
1.Family security 2.Family harmony 3.Parental guidance 4.Age 5.Authority 6.Compromise 7.Devotion 8.Patience 9.Indirectness 10.Hospitality

Source: Adapted from information found in F.Elashmawi and Philip R. Harris, Multicultural Management (Houston; Gulf Publishing, 1993), p.63.

European Culture
• Swedish
– Freedom, relationships, cooperation, family, openness

• French
– Self-reliance, freedom, openness, relationships, time

• Russian
– Family, freedom, self-reliance, openness, possessions

Conceptualizing Culture and Negotiation
• Culture as shared values
– Understanding central values and norms • Individualism/collectivism • Power distance • Career success/quality of life • Uncertainty avoidance


Hofstede’s Model of Cultural Dimensions
• Individualism/collectivism • Power distance • Career success/quality of life (Masculinity/Femininity) • Uncertainty avoidance


Definition: the extent to which the society is organized around individuals or the group • Individualism/collectivism orientation influences a broad range of negotiation processes, outcomes, and preferences
– Individualistic societies may be more likely to swap negotiators, using whatever short-term criteria seem appropriate. – Collectivistic societies focus on relationships and will stay with the same negotiator for years.


Power Distance
Definition: “The extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally”
• Cultures with stronger power distance will be more likely to have decision-making concentrated at the top of the culture.


Career Success/Quality of Life
Definition: cultures differ in the extent to which they hold values that promote career success or quality of life.
• Cultures promoting...

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