If we ask a number of people what marketing is, they will answer the question in various ways. Marketing involves more activities than most people might imagine. Although a single definition of marketing does not exist, there are a few definitions that have been widely approved. And one of them is given by The American Marketing Association (AMA). It defines marketing as "a process for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging ideas, goods and services, establishing their prices, promotion and distribution, in order to satisfy the goals of customers, clients, partners, and society at large". This definition emphasises the marketing focus on planning and ...view middle of the document...
They ran a few tests. We find two of them particularly interesting. During the first testing, the respondents drank Coca-Cola and Pepsi not knowing which beverage they drank (the so- called "blind test"), whereas on another occasion they drank form the brand-marked glasses. The researchers found out that the results differed a lot. In the first test the respondents equally favoured Pepsi and Coca-Cola; however, when they knew which drink they had, the domination of Coca-Cola was significant. Furthermore, the researchers established that the brain activity was higher when drinking the "marked" Coca-Cola than when drinking "marked" Pepsi.
This research, as well as many other studies, clearly showed the influence of emotions, motives, perception – in short, the inner consumers' world on their purchase decisions and opinions on the quality of a product/brand. And from here coined the term Neuro-marketing.
Neuro-marketing can be defined as a marketing branch using neuro-scientific methods and techniques for analysing and understanding human behaviour with regard to market and important marketing issues. It combines Marketing with Psychology, and focuses on brain activity which plays a significant role in consumers’ actions and behaviour in the market place.
The word was first used by German professor Ale Smidts of Erasmus University in 2002. However it is considered that the real founder of Neuro-Marketing is Gerry Zaltman of Harvard University. He used fMRI as a marketing tool way back in 1999.
The technology is based on a model whereby the major thinking part of human activity, about 90%, including emotions, take place in the subconscious area. This area is below the levels of controlled awareness. Because of this fact, the technologists of the market became very tempted to learn the techniques of effective manipulation of the subconscious brain activity.
The main objective is to initiate the desired actions and reactions
In person’s perception as deeply as possible.
There are numerous techniques and methods that Neuro-Marketing uses for finding out the hidden information. These include fMRI and EEG. fMRI - Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most frequent technique of scanning human brain in Neuro-Marketing. The functional magnetic resonance is a technique using powerful magnetic and radio waves to create high-quality brain images. EEG is the second most popular method of Neuro-Marketing. The method uses electrodes placed on the skull to assess the electrical activity of the neurons.
1.2 Example of Neuro-marketing
A prominent example of use of Neuro-Marketing has been shown by Campbell Soup Company in 2010. They decided to change the packaging of their soup as they realised that their sales were not increasing.
Campbell updated their soup label using eye tracking, pupil dilation, biometric heart and measurement tests, sweat levels and changes in body posture in 40 subjects. To summarize changes to the old label,...