Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental disorders
September 5, 2016
Dr. Marie Caesar
Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Abnormal psychology studies the behavior and disorders deemed as not reasonable by societal standards. Neurodevelopmental disorders are disabilities that hinder brain function and affect the behavior, memory, or the cognitive ability of a child in areas such as learning, attention, and socializing (Butcher, 2014). Neurocognitive disorders are disabilities hat impair cognitive function due to changes in the brain caused by trauma, injury, or illness (Butcher, 2014). Identifying and understanding the causes, treatments, ...view middle of the document...
During birth, the brain is also susceptible to damage by way of brain cell death which may occur through the lack of oxygen or broken blood vessels.Â Â Postnatal damage may occur when trauma, asphyxia or infection deprive the brain of making the appropriate synapses between brain cells (Stem Law Group, 2015).Â Â Other causes of the disorder include jaundice, rubella, and Rh incompatibility (Cerebral Palsy).Â Though the disorder is most common at birth, it may be acquired later through abuse, injury, or even illness (Stem Law Group,Â 2015).
The damage takes place in the motor areas of the brain and affects the childâ€™s muscle control, tone, and coordination, reflexes, posture, and balance (CDC, 2015).Â The childâ€™s fine, gross, and oral motor skills may also be affected (Cerebral Palsy).Â Motor impairment may present in any or all of the limbs and faceÂ (Stem Law Group,Â 2015).Â Â The impaired motor function may result in paresis, incoordination, or involuntary movement (Bjorgaas, Boe, & Hysing,Â 2013). Associative disorders such as epilepsy, learning disabilities, sensory impairment and pain may also present even if it did occur as a result of the same injury (Stem Law Group,Â 2015).Â Additionally, mental health problems have also been factored into the symptoms of the disorder (Bjorgaas, Boe, & Hysing,Â 2013).
Symptoms vary by the degree in each individual. Some symptoms may be evident at birth whereas others may not present for three to five years after birth (Stem Law Group, 2015). Often, children with cerebral palsy experience developmental delays in which significant milestones such as crawling and walking are not attained until after the average child in the general population (Cerebral Palsy). Standard tasks such as tying shoes, walking, and grasping objects may prove to be difficult for individuals with the disorder (Cerebral Palsy).
Cerebral Palsy is the most common childhood motor disability.Â It affects about two to three children born in the United States each year.Â Spastic cerebral palsy identifies in about sixty-one percent of all cases.Â In conjunction with cerebral palsy, the CDC found forty-one percent of children with cerebral palsy also associated with epilepsy and seven percent reflected Autism Spectrum Disorder as well (CDC, 2015).
Cerebral Palsy is a permanent, chronic, but non-progressive disorder for which there is no cure. However, with the proper treatment and support, individuals can lead near-normal lives. A combination of physicians, therapists, and educational providers will assist a person in attaining a full life ("Mayo Clinic", 1998-2015). The treatment aims to improve the quality of life, reduce associative disorders, enhance socialization, optimize mobility through decreasing pain, and maximize learning potential (Stem Law Group, 2015). Predominantly, medication may be necessary to reduce spasticity in muscles that cause tightness increasing functional ability, decrease pain, and...