This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Neuroscience Essay

2001 words - 9 pages

1. Why are MeCP2 mutations always sporadic rather than hereditary? (2 marks)
The mutations of the MeCP2 gene are sporadic rather than hereditary because a female child with Rett syndrome will usually die at a very young age, however, if they also have a normal gene they may live longer but no family history has been found to be connected to RTT. The rare male who has RTT will die before or shortly after birth; therefore this disorder cannot be hereditary. Add notes from last weeks lecture
2. Contrast the genetic cause of Rett syndrome as compared to schizophrenia.
Explain your answer in general terms, address the relative involvement of genes and environment.

RTT is caused by the ...view middle of the document...

Therefore, if a male develops RTT he will be more severely affected due to the lack of a second X chromosome to compensate for the mutation. A male fetus affected by this mutation will usually result in a miscarriage. If a male is born, they will not have the typical clinical features of RTT and will usually die a few months after birth. Whereas females usually display symptoms a year after birth.

(b) Explain which figure in this paper best models the dosage of MeCP2 expression in female patients with Rett syndrome?

• (2 marks)
• Figures 2a and 2b best represent the presence or non-presence of MeCP2 in female patients with RTT. Figure 2a uses immunostaining to exhibit the absence of the receptor for MeCP2 in rats with RTT and the clear presence of MeCP2 in wild-type rats. It also shows the normal expression of GFAP in the astrocytes of wild-type and RTT rats. Figure 2b uses a western blot analysis to clearly exhibit the absence of the MeCP2 protein in RTT rats and the presence of MeCP2 in wild-type rats.

• However, figure 4a and 4b also show a beneficial model of the dosage of MeCP2 expression in females which exhibits the effect of combining the mutant and wild-type astrocytes. The researchers show that the wild-type ACM does not completely get rid of the effect of the mutant ACM on neural growth. The key representation in this model is that females with less MeCP2 expression can have a less severe form of RTT because they have two X chromosomes. I think the best model may be 4a. So just expand on that but the points on 2a & b are good too so I may be wrong..

• “This models the dosage of MeCP2 expression in female with less severe manifestation of Rett syndrome because the two chromosomes in female Rett patient with one normal X chromosome and a mutant X chromosome would be represented by wild type derived astrocytic conditioned media and the mutant astrocytic conditioned media, respectively.”

• 4. “There are several RTT mouse models, each of which contains different mutations in MeCP2.”
• Describe two ways in which a gene sequence can be disrupted and explain the consequences of this for protein translation. Do not investigate specific reported Rett syndrome mutations, describe general changes to genetic architecture.

• Gene sequences can be disrupted in a variety of ways; including frame shift mutations and base substitution mutations. A frame shift mutation occurs when bases in a gene sequences are added or deleted, this changes the reading frame in the mRNA that occurs after the mutation and alters the translated protein, resulting in a stop codon. A base substitution mutation is the trade of one base for another base, such a change produces a different codon and creates an alteration in the way the gene sequence is transcribed. This mutation created an alteration in the resulting protein. Gene mutations like this can have varying effects on health, depending on where they occur...

Other Essays Like Neuroscience

Significance of the Brain and Conscious Experience

1824 words - 8 pages the philosophy of mind, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence at the present time. Consciousness is a point of view, an I, or a what. It has even been emphasized by Julian Jaynes that “Consciousness is not the same as cognition and should be sharply distinguished from it…The most common error…is to confuse consciousness with perception.” Page 4 There is proof which lies in the field

Fox Paper on Hr

2453 words - 10 pages and whys of human response, cognitive scientists are discovering what happens in the brain to cause such reactions. And as neuroscientists continue to study why humans do the things they do, human resource professionals can turn that knowledge to practical use in the workplace. The joining of psychologj' (the study of the human mind and behavior) and neuroscience (physiological study of the brain) sheds light on the brain's role in human nature and

The Gandhi

1466 words - 6 pages Tecnologias Cognitivas, 1.Day, S. (2005). Some demographic and socio-cultural Aspects of Synesthesia. In L.C. Robertson & N. Sagiv (Eds.), Synesthesia: Perspective from cognitive Neuroscience (pp. 11-33). New York: Oxford University Press.Hochel, M., & Milan, E. G. (2008). Synaesthesia: The existing state of affairs. CognitiveNeuropsychology, 25(1), 93-117.Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Humang learning 5th. New Jersey: Pearson Education.Nunn, J. A

Cognitive Psychology

1224 words - 5 pages understanding of these processes. This branch of psychology came to life during the fall of behaviorism with the help of new technology, the application of abstract concepts, and neuroscience (Willingham, 2007). The cognitive psychology its scientific representation of the complex human psyche, and has provided the opportunity to apply this knowledge in the treatment of human disease. The psychological perspective that addresses

Neurodevelopmental Model

3962 words - 16 pages more in a bottom-up structure. She also suggests that if impairments in infancy or early childhood occur then the higher levels of the brain are greatly influenced by the input from the lower levels from an early age (Perry, 2006). In today’s modern society, advancements in molecular genetics and neuroimaging have influenced and accelerated sophisticated research into neurobiology, developmental disorders and neuroscience as claimed by Bear

Amnesia Parallels

977 words - 4 pages Affairs Medical Center, San Diego. Doctor Squire’s primary research focus is the structure and organization of mammalian memory at the level of neural systems and cognition. Works Cited Squire, L. R., & Spanis, C. W. (1984). Long gradient of retrograde amnesia in mice: Continuity with the findings in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience, 98(2), 345-348, Retrieved from

Individual Differences In Visual Perception

1788 words - 8 pages . Farah, M.J. (1984). The neurological basis of mental imagery: A componential analysis. Cognition, 18, 245-272. Ganis, G., Thompson, W.L., & Kosslyn, S.M. (2004). Brain areas underlying visual mental imagery and visual perception: an fMRI study. Cognitive Brain Research, 20, 226-241. Gruter, T., Gruter, M., Bell, V., & Carbon, C. (2009). Visual mental imagery in congenital prosopagnosia. Neuroscience letters, 453, 135-140. Kluckhohn, C


1580 words - 7 pages schizophrenic patients. European Archives Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 246, 249-255. Alexander, F. (1984). The medical value of psychoanalysis. New York: International Universities Press. Andreasen, N. C., Arndt, S., Alliger, R., Miller, D., & Flaum, M. (1995). Symptoms of schizophrenia. Archives General Psychiatry, 52, 341-351. *Apiquian, R., Fresan, A., Herrera, K., Ulloa, R.E., & Loyzaga, C. et al (2003). Minimum effective doses of

Apa Sample

1561 words - 7 pages EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 17 References Anderson, A. K. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 154, 258–281. doi:10.1037/00963445.134.2.258 Anderson, A. K., Christoff, K., Panitz, D., De Rosa, E., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural correlates of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 5627–5633. Armony

Awesome Paper

1549 words - 7 pages between emotion and attention: a review of evidence from psychology and neuroscience. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 2, 115­129. Cunningham, M., Roberts, A., Barbee, A., Druen, P., & Wu, C. (1995). “Their ideas of beauty are, on the whole, the same as ours”: consistency and variability in the cross-cultural perception of female physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 261–279. DeBruine, L. M

Memory and Psychology Paper

531 words - 3 pages Psychology and neuroscience have been in correlation with one another as they determine why the individual behaves the way that they do. In illustration one of the most popular phonemes studied that affects motivation is the individuals thought process as well as social interactivity which is also known as the study of drug addiction has benefited due to the advances of scanning and imaging technology such as positron emission tomography.(PET

Related Papers

Neuroscience And Behavior Essay

966 words - 4 pages PSY 102: Psychology in the Modern World Your Name: Dahiana Then Instructor: Bob Melara Your Section: C3 Fall 2015 Your TA’s Name: ** Answer the questions in your own words, Type you answers, make sure you answer all parts, print the answered homework and take it with you to your next recitation! Only the two lowest homework grades can be dropped ** Homework #2 (Neuroscience and Behavior) 1. a) What are the

Neuroscience In The News Essay

1496 words - 6 pages Neuroscience in the News Dementia happens to be one of the major disorders that effect elderly people and the loved ones closest to them. The memory lapses, personality changes and impaired reasoning associated with dementia are a few reasons why this degenerative disease continues to be researched. With research comes reporting, and many times the report in which the research is delivered is easily filled with misguiding propaganda from the

Chemical Senses Final Essay

1482 words - 6 pages palate (Society for Neuroscience, 2012). Each person has a range of 5,000 to 10,000 taste buds that consist of 50 to 10 sensory cells that are stimulated by tastants such as sugars, salts, or acids (Society for Neuroscience, 2012). Once stimulated these sensory cells send their signals to nerve fibers that in turn send impulses to the cranial nerves then on to the thalamus allowing humans to perceive the sense of taste. The sense of smell is

Answer Question Essay

1777 words - 8 pages NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Mini Cases in Psychoactive Drugs and Their Effects on the Brain Scenario #1 by Darlene A. Mitrano Neuroscience Institute Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA Instructions The class will be divided into groups. Each group will be presented with a short scenario describing someone who is abusing a psychoactive drug. After reading this scenario, you and your group need to do the