Courtney Patin Week 1 Telecommunications Exercise
1) Local Loop
a. The local loop is the physical wiring that connects you to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). This line can be a voice line, or it can be a data line. The physical wiring for the local loop consists of a pair of twisted copper wires that run from the telephone company's central office (CO) to the subscriber’s premise and another pair of twisted copper wires that run back to the telephone company’s CO.
2) Central Office
a. In telephone communication in the United States, a central office (CO) is an office in a locality to which subscriber home and business lines are connected on what is called local ...view middle of the document...
A fixed Line referrers to a communications cable which is a standard telephone and data communications systems that use in-ground and telephone pole cables in contrast to wireless cellular and satellite services.
a. Cellular Telephones: Cellular telephones are wireless telephones that are served by a cellular telephone system. This system is broken into many small geographical areas called cells. Cells are connected to a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO). The connection from the cell to the MTSO is typically done over telephone lines. These lines could be copper or ±beer optic, and in some applications, micro-waves are used
* Voice the first generation (1G) cell phones transmitted information in an analog format very similar to the way a fixed-line telephone transmits voice information from the subscriber to the central office. However, when the second generation (2G) cell phones entered the market, transmission shifted from analog to digital. Not only do 2G telephones have the ability to transmit and receive voice, but they also have the ability to transmit and receive data
* Data: As 2G technologies matured, it became clear that the cell phone could be used for many applications other than just carrying on a conversation. Many people were using their cell phones to access the Internet. To meet consumer need for data, a third generation (3G) of cell phone technology was introduced. 3G technologies offered higher data rates over 2G, paving the way for multimedia applications While many cell phones in operation today are 3G, they will eventually all be replaced with fourth generation (4G) technology. 4G networks offer 10 or more times the data transmission rate of a 3G network. The data rates available on a 4G network allow the cell phone to access information from the Internet as fast as a land-line connection.
Telephone Network Topology:
* Demarcation Point: The demarcation point, also known as the Demarc, Network Interface Device (NID), or Minimum Point of Entry (MPOE) serves several purposes: It is the point that defines the end of the telephone company’s wiring, and the beginning of your wiring. It defines where the telephone company’s responsibility for maintenance ends and your responsibility begins. It contains a surge suppressor to help protect the wiring and connected equipment in your facility from damage. It allows you to temporarily disconnect your wiring from the telephone company’s wiring for troubleshooting purposes.
* Equipment- the Demarcation point includes the tie-in of osp cable to the consumers premise active equipment. In fifth networks, the connection is made by using fiber optic or copper cabling connecting the consumer to the Ont.
From the ont the signal is converted to an electrical signal and transmitted over the coaxial cable infrastructure of the home to set-top boxes and modems. This is used for the internet connection and TVs. For traditional telephone service, twisted copper wires go...