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Nueropsychology Essay

4121 words - 17 pages

- AMYGDALA: memory, emotion, aggression
- HYPOTHALAMUS: basic biological functions (hunger thirst, temperature, sexual arousal, emotion
- MEDULLA: vital functions (breathing, heart rate)
- CEREBELLUM: coordinated movement, language, thinking
- THALAMUS: switching station for sensory info; memory
- SPINAL CORD: transmits signals between brain & rest of body
- picture representation of the anatomical divisions of primary motor & primary somatosensory cortex
- “distortion” not based on size of body part greater representation = greater sensitivity
- areas have to do with motor neurons


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- radioactive labeled blood
- MRI: based on notion that hydrogen protons are always rotating
- T1: weighting, just like a CT scan
- T2: opposite (liquid = white)
- SPECT: radioactive material arrives at gray matter
- fMRI: shows magnetic properties of blood
- Auditory Cortex -> Auditory Word Form Center -> Concept Center -> Speech Planning Center -> Motor Pathways
- between Auditory Word Form Center & Speech Planning Center = ARCUATE FASCICULUS
too localized, one direction, doesn’t account for white matter pathway
|Rostrum = Motor |Genu = Sensory |
|Body = Auditory |Splenium = Visual |

- AUDITORY: can’t recognize sound
- PROSOPAGNOSIA: can’t recognize face
1. Penetrating Missile Injury to Brain (something passes through brain)
2. Closed Head Injury (Coup, Contrecoup)
3. Anoxia (0~4%) -- area of brain completely deprived of oxygen (20% of normal oxygen input in brain)
4. Hypoxia (4~8%) -- partial deprivation of oxygen
5. Stroke (cutoff of blood to brain) -- Cerebrovascular Accident or Brain Attack
6. Tumor -- source of focal brain lesions; compresses brain tissue (herniation); invades brain tissue
- MASSIVE STROKE: destroys many areas of brain; when someone loses an entire cerebral artery
- usually death; of 500,000 strokes in US, 5% are fatal; vetebral & basilar -- 85% fatal
- FOCAL LESION: localized, just one area
- LECUNAR STROKE: small, circumscribed area; type of focal lesion but very tiny
- many lecunar strokes can lead to dementia
- TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK: temporary blocking, mini stroke
- may be temporary blockage of oxygen
- can be a loss of unused cells and impairments result b/c brain reorganizes itself; can lead to strokes in the future
- ISCHEMIA: loss of blood supply
- INFARCTION: ischemic stroke that can cause necrosis (cell death)
- THROMBOSIS: blockage of cerebral artery (or narrowing = stenosis) caused by clot (thrombus) forming inside artery
- ATHEROSCLEROSIS: narrowing of artery by fatty plaques on wall (Atherosclerotic plaque); clots can build around these deposits, further constricting artery
- CEREBRAL EMBOLISM: clot that breaks off from deposit on wall and wanders to brain from another part of body
- 87% of all strokes are blockage strokes
- ANEURYSM: weak spot in wall of blood vessel “balloons” & breaks, flooding surrounding tissue w/ blood
- HEMATOMA: large accumulation of blood at site of aneurysm
- INTRACEREBRAL HEMMORHAGE: vessel bursts within brain
- SUBARACHNOID HEMMORHAGE: vessel bursts on...

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