Obesity is chronic condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fat causing excess body weight which in turn is detrimental causing health issues and ultimately a lower life expectancy.
The prevalence of obesity in Australia is 20.5%: 19.1% for males and 21.8% for females. The prevalence of being overweight but not obese was 39.1%: 48.2% for males and 30.2% for females. The number of overweight and obese adults increased from 4.6 million in 1989–90 to 5.4 million in 1995, 6.6 million in 2001 and 7.4 million in 2004–05. Approximately 25% of children are overweight or obese, up from an estimated 5% in the 1960s. (ABS, 2007) (Allman, AI. 2008)
In Sydney, 57 per cent of people are ...view middle of the document...
In the age group 35-44 years proportions of smoking were similar across BMI categories. However from age 45 onwards the pattern reversed, with proportion of smoking among overweight or obese adults lower than underweight or normal weight people. Some 14% of overweight or obese persons aged 45 years and over were daily smokers, compared to 18% of underweight or normal weight people. (ABS, 2007)
Many studies have reported links between the cessation of smoking and the likelihood of being overweight (Lahti-Koski et al. 2002). In the 2004-05 NHS, male ex-smokers were more likely to be overweight or obese (67%) than men who had never smoked (60%) or who currently smoke (57%). In almost all age groups a high proportion of male ex-smokers were overweight or obese compared to current smokers and those who had never smoked. (ABS, 2007)
Men who drank at risky or high risk levels were more likely to be overweight or obese, however this difference was less marked in the older age groups. Among women, overweight or obesity was less common in risky or high risk drinkers (40%) and low risk drinkers (43%) than among women who had never consumed alcohol or last consumed alcohol more than one week ago (48%). This pattern was strongest in the older age groups. (ABS, 2007)
The main factors implicated in rising levels of obesity are:
o Increasing energy intake— increase in energy-dense foods and drinks, larger serving sizes, reduced time for cooking, and meals eaten away from the home have contributed to diets becoming increasingly high in fat and energy.
o Increasingly sedentary lifestyles—TV and Computer games displacing recreational activities such as bike riding and backyard sports.
o Decreased walking, cycling and transport-related physical activity and
o Changes in family structures and perceptions
(Maya, PM, 2010)
Key co morbidities of obesity include cancer, diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure.
Recent studies suggest that those with a BMI more than 40 (morbidly obese) had death rates from cancer that were 52 percent higher for men and 62 percent higher for women, as compared to rates for normal-weight men and women. In both men and women, higher BMI is associated with higher death rates from cancers of the esophagus, colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney. The same trend applies to cancers of the stomach and prostate in men, and cancers of the breast, uterus, cervix, and ovaries in women.
When looking at those with type 2 diabetes, 67 percent have a BMI greater than 27 and 46 percent have a BMI greater than 30. An estimated 70 percent of diabetes risk in the U.S. can be attributed to excess weight. (Espinel, Paola T. and King, L, 2009).
Another co morbidity is high blood cholesterol, the prevalence in overweight U.S. adults is 19.1 percent for men with a BMI greater than 25; 21.6 percent for men with a BMI greater than 27;...