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Oceanography Essay

4196 words - 17 pages

Topic 12 – The Nature and Properties of Water

Hydrosphere | The combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet; the liquid water component of the earth – includes atmospheric water vapor, ground water, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, oceans * Oceans 87.54% * Ice caps 1.81% * Groundwater .63% * Everything else .02% |
Condensation | The conversion of water from the vapor to the liquid state. When it occurs, the energy required to vaporize the water is released into the atmosphere. This is about 585 calories per gram of water at 20°C |
Viscosity | A property of a substance to offer resistance to flow caused by internal friction |
Latent heat | The ...view middle of the document...

It is normally computed from conductivity, refractive index, or chlorinity. |
Hydrogen bond | An intermolecular bond that forms within water because of the dipolar nature of water molecules |
Solid | State of matter; characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume; all molecules linked in rigid open crystalline structure; T<0°C |
Liquid | A state of matter in which some molecules link into loose groups using hydrogen bonds; 100°C>T<0°C |
Gas | A state of matter in which each molecule is energetic and separated; T>100°C |
Calorie | A unit of heat, defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C |
Polar structure | Molecule where there is an unequal sharing of electron |
Evaporation | The process of changing from the liquid to the vapor state at a temperature below the boiling point of a substance |
Density | The mass per unit volume of a substance. Usually expressed as grams per cubic centimeter. Fresh water: 1.0 g/cm3; Seawater: 1.025 g/cm3 |

Topic 13/14 – Density and Temperature in the World’s Oceans/Deep Ocean Circulation

Seawater | Average density is 1.025 gr/c3. Pure water is densest near 4°C, but seawater is densest at temperature it freezes |
Mixing | Layer above thermocline/pycnocline, where water is evenly mixed to have the same characteristics |
Freezing point | The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid under any given set of conditions. The freezing point of water is 0°C at one atmosphere pressure |
Water Mass | A body of water identifiable form its temperature, salinity, or chemical content |
Density | The mass per unit volume of a substance. Usually expressed as g/cm3. For ocean water with a salinity of 350/00 at 0°C, the density is 1.028 g/cm3 |
Water Type | Has a single value of temperature and salinity, whereas a water mass has a characteristic range of temperature and salinity |
σT | =seawater density= (water density- 1) x 1000 |
Thermohaline circulation | The vertical movement of ocean water driven by density differences resulting from the combined effects of variations in temperature and salinity; produces deep currents; water mass moves to balance changes in temperature and salinity |
Antarctic Intermediate Water | Forms near Antarctica by mixing of Antarctic Bottom Water with cold fresh water from ice melting; moves north above AABW + NADW layer |
North Atlantic Deep Water | A cold, high-salinity water mass left after formation of ice in the Greenland Sea. It sinks and flows southward underneath the Gulf Stream; fills most of N. Atlantic |
Antarctic Bottom Water | A cold, very high-salinity water mass formed in the Antarctic. It sinks and flows northward into all major ocean basins; fills most of S. Atlantic |
Mediterranean Intermediate Water | Formed by evaporation of warm Mediterranean Sea surface water. It sinks to the bottom, leaves through the Gibraltar Straits, and moves across North...

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