Operant Conditioning Essay

3426 words - 14 pages

Operant Conditioning in the Criminal Justice System
Christine Morton
Psychology of Criminal Behavior
CCJS 461
Instructor: David Bierie
June 02, 2015

There are many theories of behaviorism that started in the year of 1920 and continued through the 1950’s. Behaviorism is a scientific study of behaviors when in the midst of thinking or feeling where explanations of behaviors are the focus. The main focus is to observe behaviors with a common denominator of stimulus-response for individuals to learn. John B. Watson is remembered for his views and theories of behaviorism. The focus for his study was on the behaviors alone and not combining the mind, body, or ...view middle of the document...

Once the cat finds the lever on the inside of the box, he is freed. After escaping, the cat would be again placed inside the box and timed for a successful escape. The object of the study is the cats would learn that by pressing the lever on the inside of the box, they would be freed. Edward Thorndike followed a motto that was based on behaviors put forward. A behavior that is followed by a positive and comforting consequence is to be repeated but behaviors of dislike or negativity will likely be discontinued or stopped.
The studies of B.F. Skinner were theories that studied the mind during observative behaviors. He theorized that to understand behavior, there was a need to understand the cause of an action and what the consequence for the behaviors or actions were. This is known as operant conditioning. B. F. Skinner believed that reinforcement for behaviors that is given a reward is strengthened but behaviors that are not rewarded or reinforced were weakened. B.F. Skinner used three types of reinforcements. The neutral operants were responses obtained when the stimulus response would neither increase or decrease in probability of the action being repeated. The reinforcers was when a response would have an increased probability of repeated behaviors which can include positive or negative behaviors. The punishers was a response obtained with a decrease of probability that the behavior will be repeated. This is a learning mechanism because of the qualities with punishments not having a likelihood of repeat, however, positive reinforcements have a much larger likelihood of being repeated due to the rewards it provides.
An enactment of criminal statutes that is in response to a situation which is observed and falls in criteria to be unconstitutional by the U.S. legislation. U.S. Statutes for sexual abuse, Part I, Chapter 109A, Sec. 2241, of 2010 US code is an example. This is when a person is taken into custody and becomes the target of sexual abuse that is unwanted, yet they are physically incapable of declining or communicating their unwillingness to participate. The legislation is supposed to protect inmates that are in the custody of a facility or institution. If it is found that an agency knowingly allows or causes fear of a person in their custody, which violates the constitution, this violation would be subject to imprisonment, punishment of those involved, and a fine. The violation could have the possible repercussions of sexual interactions on another person in custody by use of threats, fears, bodily harm, kidnapping, or death. It is the focus of this statute to prevent any unwanted sexually abusive behaviors and to notify the public that violation of this statue will result in punishable consequences. It is the behaviorism theory of operant conditioning that makes a stand in this idea because of the behavior that generates a response of negative punishment and possible imprisonment. The legal code makes the behaviors of committing...

Other Essays Like Operant Conditioning Essay

Dse141Tma02 Essay

1570 words - 7 pages consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning. Skinner began his research by observing rats in a maze and how long it would take to find their way to the food. Finding the food was the consequence of the rat’s behaviour. This process is known as behaviour shaping. This method was very time consuming so he invented the ‘Skinner Box’ (pg 163). This box was designed so the animal inside, rat or pigeon, would press or peck a lever and as

Psychology Essay

596 words - 3 pages and understanding | |Types of Learning | |Classical Conditioning (Learning by Association) | |Operant Conditioning ( Learning through

Psychology and Asd

1262 words - 6 pages health issue in question: namely ASD. The theories which this discussion will focus on are Behaviourism (notably operant conditioning) and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. As stated in the aforementioned, impaired communication is characteristic of |ASD. Since communication is essential to express thoughts, concerns, wishes and needs and enables humans to build relationships and interact socially an ability to be able to communicate effectively is

Psychology Flashcards

4122 words - 17 pages sees a white fur coat and becomes frightened. | 60) STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION | THE ability to distinguish between two similar stimuli. for example, person who is fearful of poison oak leave, but not oak tree leaves, is exhibiting stimulus discrimination. | 61) OPERANT CONDITIONING | A learning process in which behavior is shaped and maintained by consequences (rewards or punishments ) that follow a response. in contrast, in classical

Teaching in Clinical Pratice

2570 words - 11 pages . The emphasis is on conditioning the student to respond in a given way to given situations. This conditioning is further sub divided into classical and operant conditionings. Cognitive or humanist theory is more student-centred and as a result is easier to apply in nursing. The word Cognitive according to the Oxford dictionary (2006) means the act of knowing, this involves the students’ own thinking and perception. This approach centres on

Curriculum and Assessment

2390 words - 10 pages . According to Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, children’s behaviors happen increasingly with the positive reinforcement or decreasingly through punishment (Berk, 2013). Children imitate positive behaviors by observing the model being reinforced. For example, when educators praise the children who follow the instructions, the others are conscious of making good choices. In addition, in two settings, educators focus on positive reinforces rather

Compare and Contrast Two Theories/Models of Relationships and Show How They Might Be Utilised by a Therapist Who Is Engaged in Couples Counselling

2696 words - 11 pages being fed is associated with comfort. This stage of a child’s life can be associated with classical conditioning. While the infant gains knowledge of its environment they begin to be aware of behaviours that will fulfil their needs for example the have the innate ability to cry, which through time the begin to realise they gain attention and their needs are met. This can be associated with operant conditioning as the infant repeats the behaviour

The Separation Of Capital Ownership And Control

1577 words - 7 pages The argument of whether the separation of capital ownership and control is an efficient form of organization has constantly been a controversial issue. The criticism whether the controllers’ act is in the best interest of the owners’ wills never end as long as hired managers operate management. As the number of public companies has been increasing over the course of this century, meanwhile the American style of contact based corporation has

The Versatility And Flexibility Of OLED's

1014 words - 5 pages In April 1, 2002, organic light emitting diodes gain rise in the scientific community with their published, more practical form at Ames Laboratory. “Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, in collaboration with scientists at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, have developed and demonstrated a novel, fluorescence-based chemical sensor that is more compact, versatile and less expensive than existing technology of its

Comparing The Moral Virtues Of Antony And Julian The Apostate

1103 words - 5 pages Roman emperor Julian the Apostate and Christian leader Antony both exhibited many qualities of character during their existence. Both of them led very distinctive lives although shared several ethical values. Book 25 of “The Later Roman Empire” and the book “Early Christian Lives” show concrete evidence of this. In the following essay, I will argue how both leaders’ lives were devoted to their religious beliefs and their mutual cardinal virtues

Living In A Cashless Society

1637 words - 7 pages Money in a traditional sense no longer exists. Money is becoming much of a concept than a physical material, and most ordinary bitter have not see the reality of the switch. People today are using credit and debit cards on a regular basis and in everyday situations such as meal purchased at fast food, highway tolls, clothing, groceries, gas stations, etc. all of these means of systems could be regarded as a cashless society or world. The question

Related Papers

Operant Conditioning Essay

698 words - 3 pages Making Individuals aware there’s help for Mental Illness Making Individuals aware there’s help for Mental Illness Unit 6 Project Leeann Jackson CM107 Making Individuals aware there’s help for Mental Illness I. Introduction A. The number of Individuals with Mental Illness is on the rise

Operant Conditioning Essay

4801 words - 20 pages though the response has been extinguished. The CR will then extinguish again. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is used to describe how we build up, sometimes very complicated, behaviour patterns over time. For example, it can explain how we learn skills like piano playing, ice-skating or driving and how we learn a language. It can explain how animals learn tricks, how they learn their way round mazes and how we learn superstitions

Operant Conditioning In Child Training Essay

2271 words - 10 pages Running head: REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT Parent’s Perspective in Giving Reinforcement and Punishment Josiah Lee Kah Ping Singapore Human Resources Institute Academy Diploma in Organisational Psychology – Principles of Psychology Mr Goh Kay Hee (MAAP) Abstract Operant conditioning was coined by BF Skinner, meaning an organism was taught to repeat acts that lead to favourable results and to avoid acts that lead to unfavourable

Classical Conditioning Versus Operant Conditioning Changes On Behavior

643 words - 3 pages Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning Learning is the process through which experience causes permanent change in behavior or knowledge (Woolfolk,2007). Behavioral theorists view learning, as an event that occurs outside of the individual that cause a change in behavior, the result of this change is learning. Two major behaviorist views of learning are Operant and Classical Conditioning. Classical Conditioning is the association of