Factors affecting Learning
Instructional Design is largely affected by how a user learns:
Meaningfulness effect Highly meaningful words are easier to learn and remember than less meaningful words. This is true whether meaningful is measured by
1) the number of associations the learner has for the word,
2) by frequency of the word
3) or by familiarity with the sequential order of letters,
4) or the tendency of the work to elicit clear images.
An implication is that retention will be improved to the extent the user can make meaning of the material.
Serial position effects Serial position effects result from the particular placement of an item within a list. Memory is better ...view middle of the document...
Interference effects occur when trying to remember material that has previously been learned. Interference effects are always negative.
Organization effects Organization effects occur when learners chunk or categorize the input. Free recall of lists is better when learners organize the items into categories rather than attempt to memorize the list in serial order.
Levels-of-Processing effects The more deeply a word is processed, the better it will be remembered. Semantic encoding of content is likely to lead to better memory. Elaborative encoding, improves memory by making sentences more meaningful.
State-Dependent effects State- or Context-dependent effects occur because learning takes place in within a specific context that must be accessible later, at least initially, within the same context. For example, lists are more easily remembered when the test situation more closely resembles the leaning situation, apparently due to contextual cues available to aid in information retrieval.
Mnemonic effects Mnemonics - strategies for elaborating on relatively meaningless input by associating the input with more meaningful images or semantic context. Four well-known mnemonic methods are the place method, the link method, the peg method and the keyword method.
Abstraction effects Abstraction is the tendency of learners to pay attention to and remember the gist of a passage rather than the specific words of a sentence. In general, to the extent that learners assume the goal is understanding rather than verbatim memory and the extent that the material can be analyzed into main ideas and supportive detail, learners will tend to concentrate on the main ideas and to retain these in semantic forms that are more abstract and generalized than the verbatim sentences included in the passage.
Levels effect This effect occurs when the learner perceives that some parts of the passage are more important than others. Parts that occupy higher levels in the organization of the passage will be learned better than parts occupying low levels.
Prior Knowledge effects Prior knowledge effects will occur to the extent that the learner can use existing knowledge to establish a context or construct a schema into which the new information can be assimilated.
Inference effects Inference effects occur when learners use schemas or other prior knowledge to make inferences about intended meanings that go beyond what is explicitly stated in the text. Three kinds of inferences are case grammar pre-suppositions, conceptual dependency inferences and logical deductions.
Student misconception effects. Prior knowledge can lead to misconceptions. Misconceptions may be difficult to correct due to fact that learner may not be aware that knowledge s a misconception. Misconception occurs when input is filtered through schemas that are oversimplified, distorted or incorrect.
Text Organization Effects Text organization refers to the effects that the degree and type of...