Paper is a sheet of fibers with a number of added chemicals that affect the properties and quality of the sheet. Besides fibers and chemicals, manufacturing of pulp and paper requires a large amount of process water and energy in the form of steam and electric power.
Consequently, the main environmental issues associated with pulp and paper production are emissions to water, emissions to air, and energy consumption. Waste is a gradually increasing environmental issue of concern
.Paper production typically involves the following steps:
â€¢ Producing and acquiring fiber
â€¢ Chemically or mechanically processing the fiber into pulp
â€¢ Running the pulp through a paper ...view middle of the document...
His paper was made from such things as tree bark and old fish netting. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was 500 years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method. Papermaking was known in the Islamic world from the end of the eighth century A.D.
Knowledge of papermaking eventually moved westward, and the first European paper mill was built at Jativa, in the province of Valencia, Spain, in about 1150. By the end of the 15th century, paper mills existed in Italy, France, Germany, and England, and by the end of the 16th century, paper was being made throughout Europe.
Regardless of the source, you need fiber to make paper. Today fiber comes mainly from two sources wood and recycled paper products.
Paper mills differ in their processes based on the source of fiber used and the end product produced. There are three basic types of mills:
â€¢ Pulp mills
â€¢ Recycled paper processing mills
â€¢ Mills that use both recycled and virgin fiber
1.1 Mission and vision
Mission: is to be the leading source for environmentally responsible, economically paper and meeting the business needs of customers.
Vision: To excel in serving demands of paper and paper products worldwide
1.2 Objective of the Study
The objective of the study is to analyze the operational management in the paper mill and how the process might be improved to reduce its environmental impacts.
2. Key process in operations
The paper mill divides the operations to four main stages or processes.
Involves the operations directed towards providing for the raw material and resources necessary for the production. In the case of pulp and paper the most important raw material is wood and recycled paper.
In this process the raw materials are converted to intermediary and/or finished products.
2.2.1 Making pulp
Several processes are commonly used to convert logs to wood pulp. In the mechanical process, logs are first tumbled in drums to remove the bark. The logs are then sent to grinders, which break the wood down into pulp by pressing it between huge revolving slabs. The pulp is filtered to remove foreign objects. In the chemical process, wood chips from de-barked logs are cooked in a chemical solution. This is done in huge vats called digesters. The chips are fed into the digester, and then boiled at high pressure in a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The chips dissolve into pulp in the solution. Next the pulp is sent through filters. Bleach may be added at this stage, or colorings. The pulp is sent to the paper plant.
The pulp is next put through a pounding and squeezing process called beating. Inside a large tub, the pulp is subjected to the effect of machine beaters. At this point, various filler materials can be added such as chalks, clays, or chemicals such as titanium oxide. These additives will influence the opacity and other qualities of the final product. Sizing is...