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Operation Management Process Choice And Layout Planning

971 words - 4 pages

PROCESS CHOICECharacteristics of project, jobbing, batch, flow, and process production systems, with examples for each.Project, jobbing, batch, flow and process production are the process types used in manufacturing. The figure below shows the trade off between volume and variety of outputs. In choosing one of these systems, high volume means low variety and high variety means low volume.(see figure 1)Project processes - The essence of project processes is that they are all different, so very low volume and very high variety. The identification of activities and their relationship are uncertain, they can change during the production process itself. Each job has a defined start and finish and ...view middle of the document...

Finally they typically implies high Work in Progress between work centres. An example could be the production of music instruments.Flow processes - This kind of process is dedicated to the production of a low variety of product in a high volume. Products are perceived as standard, even if there are superficial differences between them. The process does not have to stop to accommodate differences between products. There are not buffer stocks between processes, that means 'zero' set up time. All workstations must operate to the same cycle time. The classical example is an automobile plant, like every mass operations it is repetitive and predictable.Processes production - Characterised by very high volume and almost zero variation. Products lend themselves to flow, sometimes they are literally continuous, being produces in an endless flow. They require very high capital investment in equipment. The process is proved before beginning and it usually needs very low manual intervention. An example is the paper making.LAYOUT PLANNINGExplain the differences between fixed position, product, process, and a cell system layouts, indicating a suitable application for each one.One of the most obvious characteristics of an operation is deciding where to put all the facilities, machines, materials, staff, etc. This is what layout concerns, the physical location of the transforming resources and the way in which the transformed resources flow through the operation. There are four basic layout types.Fixed position layout - The process recipient remains stationary and the equipment, machinery, plant and people, instead of the transforming resources, move through it. It happens because the product is too large or delicate to move, or because it could object to being moved. The purpose should be to design so that all of the resources can easily access the point of delivery. There are two types of this...

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