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Organism Physiology Essay

1134 words - 5 pages

Organism Physiology
BIO/101
December 11, 2012

Organisms are several existing objects such as plants, animals, micro-organisms, or fungus. The organism is made up of organelles, organs, or other cells that coexist together to carry on the various stages of life. There are many organisms to choose from and I have chosen the giant octopus or Enteroctopus Dofleini for this assignment. The giant octopus is a marine invertebrate organism that inhabits the oceans off the coast of the United States.
The octopus has a food source that consists of small fish, clams, mussels, crabs, and other marine animals. The giant octopus have developed different adaptations in the form of ...view middle of the document...

The giant octopus short term and long-term memory capability from its highly developed mind adaptation gives the octopus a definite advantage in surviving. Octopuses could change color to match the environment as it hides and are stealthy hunters. The giant octopus patiently waits for prey to swim within reaching distance and swiftly holds the prey, poisoning it with a secretion that stuns the prey.
Chromatophores are the light reflecting cells on the skin of the octopus that allows it to blend in their environment. Each Chromatophore consists of a central cell containing pigment granules that is surrounded by 15 to 25 muscle fibers and receives instructions by a set of nerve cells controlled by the brain. In times of distress, the octopus can detach a limb and the crawling arm serves as a distraction to predators, allowing the octopus to escape if attack. The giant octopus is a perfect example of adaptation in an organism and can adapt to any surroundings it inhabits. The brain enables the giant octopus to solve problems and the ability to memorize its environment, makes the brain work with the octopus’s arms similar to the way the brain works for human limbs.
The brain sends nerve impulses to the arms and the arms carryout the tasks signaled from the brain. The octopus can sense a predator and use its defense mechanism as an ink screen to disorientate and confuse the predator. This defensive screen allows the octopus to escape to safety. The physiological development of the organs in the octopus ensures its survival in its surroundings and makes the octopus an excellent hunter. It hypothesize that the brain of the octopus gives an assignment to the arm and the arm essentially decides how to carry out the task. There was an experiment done that involved cutting and separating the nerves of an arm from other nerves in the body and tickling the arm. The response shows the injured arm reacting just as a healthy octopus’s arm would (Horton, 2008). This is a unique circuitry gives the octopus immaculate control over their bodies.
The giant octopus prefers movement in a style closest to walking. The suckers on each arm move in unison to propel the octopus. Each individual sucker has up to 10,000 neurons in it (Horton, 2008). Marine biologists have studied cephalopods claiming that their subject even has personalities and Scigliano says “that octopuses engage in play, the deliberate,...

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