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Organizacija Essay

4749 words - 19 pages

ÞIVOTNI CIKLUSI PREDUZEÃA
Fenomen životnih ciklusa je odavno poznat ne samo u biologiji nego i u mnogim drugim nauènim disciplinama, od astrofizike do tehnièkih i politièkih nauka. Svi živi organizmi imaju svoje životne cikluse, ali isto tako ga imaju i planete, proizvodi, usluge, politièke partije i naravno poslovne organizacije. Postoji nekoliko teorija životnih ciklusa preduzeãa, koje se samo delimièno podudaraju, ali smatramo da posebno mesto meðu njima zauzima Adižesova teorija životnih ciklusa preduzeãa jer je do sada najobuhvatnija, najdetaljnije razraðena i potkrepljena je sa mnoðtvom autentiènih primera. Drugi znaèajan razlog zaðto je bað ova teorija interesantna za nas je taj da ...view middle of the document...

Ta saznanja postala su moãne informacije za sve preduzetnike i menadžere, jer shvatajuãi gde se preduzeãe nalazi u svom životnom ciklusu i ðta mu omoguãuje da raste, a ðta ga gura u devijacije i smrt možemo donositi bolje upravljaèke odluke. Drugim reèima, ova teorija pomaže organizacijama da identifikuju unutraðnje barijere koje ih spreèavaju da budu uspeðnije u razlièitim etapama njihovog razvoja. Od èega zavise rast i starenje organizacija Klasièna teorija životnih ciklusa preduzeãa obrazlaže da su dva kljuèna faktora koja determiniðu rast i razvoj preduzeãa: njegova hronoloðka starost i velièina (merena kapitalom i brojem zaposlenih). Adižesov institut radeãi do danas sa nekoliko hiljada kompanija ðirom sveta iz svih privrednih grana stvorio je bazu sluèajeva (velik statistièki uzorak) na osnovu kojeg se može opovrgnuti ova pretpostavka. Èak i bez neke posebne analize lako se mogu identifikovati viðe stotina godina »mlade« vitalne organizacije, kao i svega nekoliko godina »stare« i birokratizovane organizacije. Takoðe se mogu prepoznati velike fleksibilne i vitalne organizacije i male trome organizacije, i obrnuto, velike organizacije koje poput dinosaurusa
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odumiru i male dinamiène organizacije koje nižu uspehe i veoma brzo napreduju. Dakle, niti hronoloðka starost niti velièina preduzeãa ne determiniðu njegovu vitalnost i poslovnu sposobnost. Faktori koji to uslovljavaju su: 1) fleksibilnost organizacije 2) stepen kontrole sopstvenih procesa Fleksibilnost podrazumeva eksternu i internu fleksibilnost, to jest, spoljaðnju fleksibilnost preduzeãa u odnosu na: · promenljive zahteve njegovih klijenata, · promenljive aktivnosti konkurenata · promenljive ostale uslove okruženja i unutraðnju fleksibilnost preduzeãa u smislu: · preorijentacije ljudi · preusmeravanja novèanih sredstava · preraspodele opreme · podeðavanja organizacione strukture Stepen kontrole sopstvenih procesa podrazumeva koliko je preduzeãe u stanju da: · postavlja jasne ciljeve, planove i zadatke, · prati aktivnosti i stanja resursa · preduzima korektivne mere Priroda organizacionih sistema (kao i sistema uopðte) je takva da ni jedno preduzeãe ne može istovremeno da bude maksimalno fleksibilno i da drži pod kontrolom sve svoje aktivnosti. Meðutim, preduzeãe može da dosegne takav stadijum razvoja u kome su na relativno visokom nivou izjednaèeni njegova fleksibilnost i njegova sposobnost kontrolisanja vlastitih procesa. Tada se ono nalazi u Top formi, to jest, u stadijumu u kome može da se menja i kontroliðe željene promene.
VISOKA FLEKSIBILNOST KONTROLISANOST

TOP FORMA

NISKA RAST STARENJE

Do ove oblasti preduzeðe raste, nakon nje ono poèinje da stari. Znaèi, ako je organizacija viðe fleksibilna nego ðto može da kontroliðe sopstvene procese - ona je mlada. Ako je viðe u stanju da kontroliðe procese nego ðto moðe da se menja i prilagoðava promenama – ona je stara. Kada može uspeðno da sprovodi obe stvari – ona je u Top formi.
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TIPIÈAN ÞIVOTNI CIKLUS PREDUZEÃA...

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