MODEL FOR OD
Stage 1: Anticipate a Need for Change
Organization disequilibrium or needs improvement leads to the felt need to adopt new ways for change.
Stage 2: Develop the Practitioner-Client Relationship
The practitioner tends to have open communication, a relationship of trust and an atmosphere of shared responsibility.
Stage 3: The Diagnostic Phase
Gather and analyze Data. Investigate data using interview or questionnaire.
Stage 4: Action Plans, Strategies and Techniques
Aim at resolving problems and increasing organization effectiveness. More time spend on this stage.
Stage 5: Self-Renewal, Monitor and Stabilize
Monitor the results and stabilize the desired changes.
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Member Identity: employees identify with the organization as a whole on their type of job or field of professional expertise.
2. Team Emphasis: the degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals.
3. People Focus: the degree to which management empowers the employees within the organization.
4. Autonomy: the degree to which departments within the organization are encouraged to operate in a coordinated or interdependent manner.
5. Control: the degree to which rules, regulations, and direct supervision are used to control employee behavior.
6. Risk Tolerance: the degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative, and risk-seeking.
TOOLS FOR CHANGE
- The first tool provides people with information or the ability to gather information.
- People feel free to go outside their own department to gather information and open communication patterns across departments.
- Making information available at every level increases employee motivation and permits faster decision-making.
- This helps employees to identify with organizational goals.
- Open-book organizations teach employees to understand accounting and financial statements and to use that knowledge in their work and planning.
- The basic element involves getting key information to employees so that work teams can make job decisions.
- A major benefit is that employees are able to analyze and understand the problems for themselves.
- The second tool provides the corporate entrepreneur with the support and necessary "go ahead" from higher management as well as the cooperation of peers and subordinates.
- If the project will cut across organizational lines, support and collaboration from other departments is needed.
- For example, interdepartmental meetings and training sessions that bring people together can provide the opportunity to build support for projects.
- Organizations can remove the fear to fail and provide a climate that supports people in taking risks. Resources
- The third tool provides the resources, including funds, staff, equipment, and materials, to carry out the project.
- Budgetary channels are the normal vehicle of funding innovation, but in most instances this process is too time-consuming to respond to a project in a timely manner.
Change does not take place quickly in a strongly established culture.
THE GOALS AND VALUES OF OD
The ultimate purpose of increasing an organization's ability to adapt to a changing environment is to make it more effective.
What makes an organization effective or ineffective?
From an organization's perspective, effectiveness is the degree of goal achievement or, to put it another way, the amount of resources the organization uses in order to produce units of output.
In general, OD programs are aimed at three basic organizational dimensions that affect performance: managerial...