Organizational Theory Essay

1378 words - 6 pages

What is an organization?

Organizations are social entities that are goal directed, with deliberately structured activity systems, and with a link to the external environment.
Types of Organizations
We will study both large and small organizations. We will also look at manufacturing and service organizations, for-profit and nonprofit organizations.
Importance of Organizations

Organizations create value for owners, customers, and employees by their activities. They bring together resources to accomplish specific goals, whether those goals are putting on the Olympics or planting new trees in the city. Organizations produce goods and services, using innovative ...view middle of the document...

Dimensions of Organization Design
Structural Dimensions
[Exhibit 1.4]
Structural dimensions provide labels to describe an organization's internal characteristics. Formalization pertains to the amount of written documentation in the organization; Specialization is the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into separate jobs; Hierarchy of authority describes who reports to whom and the span of control; Centralization refers to the hierarchical level that has authority to make a decision; Professionalism is the level of formal education and training of employees; Personnel ratios refer to the deployment of people to various functions and departments.
Contextual Dimensions
Contextual dimensions characterize the whole organization and describe the organizational setting. Size is the organization's magnitude as reflected in the number of people in the organization; Organizational technology refers to the tools, techniques, and actions used to produce the organization's products or services; Environment includes all elements outside the boundary of the organization; Goals and strategy define the purpose and competitive techniques that set it apart from other organizations; Culture is the underlying set of key values, beliefs, understandings, and norms shared by employees.
Performance and Effectiveness Outcomes
An organization must learn to be efficient-using the least amount of resources to achieve its goals, as well as effective-the degree to which an organization actually achieves its goals. In doing this, the company must consider its stakeholder who are any group within or outside the organization that has a stake in the organization's performance. Typical stakeholders include employees, customers, creditors, management, government, unions, the community, suppliers, and owners and stockholders [Exhibit 1.6].
The Evolution of Organization Theory and Design
Historical Perspectives
Organization design has varied over time in response to societal changes. The classical perspective remains the basis of management theory today. One classical subfield, pioneered by Frederick Taylor, was the closed system approaches of scientific management. Through scientific procedures in 1898, Taylor identified correct movements and tools for loading four times as much iron or steel for the Bethlehem Steel plant. Administrative principles focused on the total organization based on insights of practitioners such as Fayol. Bureaucracy was an effective approach for the needs of the Industrial Age, calling for clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal recordkeeping, and uniform application of standard rules. It remained the primary approach to organization design through the 1980s. The Hawthorne Studies led to a revolution in worker treatment from findings that positive treatment improved motivation and productivity. Contingency theory means that one thing depends upon other things, and for organizations to be...

Other Essays Like Organizational Theory

Industrial/Organiational Psychology Essay

728 words - 3 pages /organizational psychology a giant jump forward in technological applicability after the binding their two fields into one outstanding theory of human factor. This theory deals completely with the design of technology for use by people (Spector, 2008). The largest impact in the development of industrial/organizational psychology was the destruction of World War 1 and World War 2. During World War 1 a psychologist by the name of Robert Yerkes developed

Organizational Behavior Essay

992 words - 4 pages The Meaning of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of human behavior in the workplace, of the interaction between people and the organization, and of the organization itself. The major goals of organizational behavior are to explain, predict, and control behavior. Explanation refers to describing the underlying reasons or process by which phenomena occur. For example, an understanding of leadership theory would

Strategic Human Resource Management

545 words - 3 pages White-Collar Worker? Advantages & Disadvantages of Matrix Organizational Structures in Business Organizations Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity in Workplace The taxonomy of management theories represents classifications of detailed descriptions of management approaches, philosophies and practices used across a wide range of industries. Each individual theory outlines specific approaches to issues related to workforce management

Management Planning Presentation

519 words - 3 pages Organizational Structures Amber Tolson June 06, 2014 Management Theory and Practice Joseph GERWENS Amber Tolson Professor Joseph GERWENS Management Theory and Practice Organizational Structure Without organizational structure, staff members can run into difficulty with knowing who to report to in the business if any situations come up. In a business there needs to be structure so employees can know who they need to report to if

Corporate Culture

1013 words - 5 pages cultures. References Allen C. Bluedorn John (1992). Journal of Management. Retrieve from: Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. James. Collins. (2001), Good to Great. New York City. William Collins. By Clara Lippert Glenn, 04/05/2013. Retrieve

Organizaiton Learning and Learning Organization

3930 words - 16 pages some accommodation about how an organization to do in the future. Literature review Literature review of organizational learning In present years, organizational learning has become a popular topic both in the academia and practice in the organization. An increasing numbers of western scholars turn to study the theory of organizational learning and they give a variety of definition to organizational learning, as the concept of

Organisation Design

718 words - 3 pages Knowledge about organizational design has evolved over the past century. In this part, I will show you on a brief tour of the historical development of organizational design theory. Keep two things in mind here. Firstly, because both the approaches and environments are changing over time, organizational design is an on-going process. Secondly, changes in the theories usually involve trial and error, which should be understood dialectically


673 words - 3 pages perspective as relevant to organization theory and leadership. CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE  AND ORGANIZATION THEORY Environmental change and uncertainty, work technology, and the size of a company are all identified as environmental factors impacting the effectiveness of different organizational forms. According to the contingency perspective, stable environments suggest mechanistic structures that emphasize centralization, formalization

Organizational Behavior and Leadership

617 words - 3 pages Organizational Behavior Project Topic Leadership and Organizational Behavior James D. Eddy Grantham University Abstract Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system

Influence of Organizational Culture on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: a Three-Sector Study

5754 words - 24 pages approach to the assessment of organizational culture,” Group and Organization Studies, 13 (3). Deal, T. E., & Kennedy A. A. (1983). Corporate cultures. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 19 (4). Deal, T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Denison, D.R., & Mishra, A.K. 1995 "Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness,” Organization

Human Behavior In Organization

733 words - 3 pages , characteristics of science, and principles that are so freely borrowed by the field of organizational behavior. The social sciences of economics, political science, and history have had a secondary impact on the field. 3. Scientific Method Foundation. OB had inherited the tradition of scientific method in its investigations from its parent disciplines. The scientific methods emphasizes the use of logic and theory in formulating research questions and the

Related Papers

Organizational Theory And Behavior Final Essay

2090 words - 9 pages FINAL EXAM 1 - Equity, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What one person sees as fair and reasonable another interprets as injustice. Like beauty, injustice is something that can grow on a person. Right now it may not seem that its “not really about the money” but tomorrow things may appear quite a bit different. Equity theory is based on cognitive dissonance theory (where two contradictory ideas are held simultaneously resulting

“(We Can) Conceive Of Twentieth Century Management Theory As Being Involved In A Double Movement Of Constructing Organizational Reality And Rationality While Effacing The Process Of Construction...

2110 words - 9 pages CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES – (BY ROBERT PHILIP ACQUAH) “(We can) conceive of twentieth-century management theory as being involved in a double movement of constructing organizational reality and rationality while effacing the process of construction behind a mask of science and naturalness, we can see Critical Management Studies as being engaged in a project of undoing this work, of deconstructing the reality of organizational life or

Organisational Behavior Bibliographies Essay

2582 words - 11 pages in the Workplace 52 Organizational Behavior Case: How Far-Reaching Are Globalization and Technology? 52 Organizational Behavior Case: I Want Out 53 Real Case: Not Treating Everyone the Same 53 Organizational Behavior Case: Changing with the Times 54 Real Case: The Ethics of Downsizing 55 Chapter 3 Organizational Context: Design and Culture 57 Learning Objectives 57 The Organizational Theory Foundation 58 Denning Organizational Behavior 20

Industrial/Organizational Psychology Worksheet Essay

845 words - 4 pages practice and science of industrial efficiency and organizational human relations to address workplace problems and issues. Reference: Barnes-Holmes, D., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Bond, F.W., Hayes, S.C., Stewart, I. (2006). Relational frame theory and industrial/organizational psychology. Journal of Organizational Kanfer, R. (2005). Self-regulation research in work and I/O psychology. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(2), 186-191. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from Human Resources Abstracts database. Spector, P. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice, 5e. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.