Organizing Work Team Paper
April 28, 2014
As one goes through his or her daily lives they find that organization of what is being attempted to accomplish for the day, month, or year is beneficial in achieving goals. Likewise, a business must be organized to achieve its stated goals and responsibilities. The purpose, a company, must organize according to Robins and Coulter (2010) is “To divide work that must be done into specific jobs and departments. Assign tasks and responsibilities associated with individual jobs. Coordinate diverse organizational tasks. Cluster jobs into units. Establish relationships among individuals, groups, and ...view middle of the document...
has experienced changes in organizational structure. In the early 1990’s Apple Inc. posted its largest annual loss in company history at $188.3 million. At this time, it was decided at Apple Inc. an organizational restructure was necessary. Apple Inc. changed from an organic business organizational structure that had limited focus to a divisional organizational structure (Picarille 1995). A new organizational structure for Apple Inc. encompassed different divisions unlike before. The new divisions were engineering, manufacturing and distribution, sales and customer support, and marketing and customer relations. Establishing these different divisions enabled Apple Inc. to shore up internal and external weaknesses related to the inability to offer product at lower prices, deliver new products, and license MAC operating systems. What Apple Inc. had essentially done is transitioned from an organic organizational structure type to a mechanistic organizational structure type.
One of the traits related to the mechanistic organizational type is its rigid departmentalization. What worked when Apple Inc. was a computer startup company which had low formalization, decentralization, and cross-functional teams did not work as the company became a giant in the tech world. Customer demand was not being met so specific departmentalization was necessary to ensure proper distribution and customer satisfaction related to getting the product.
Apple Inc. also focuses on placing employees in high specialization groups. The companies normal way of conducting business and accomplishing goals is through placement of employees based on specialization as stated by Lashinsky and Burke (2011) “Specialization is the norm at Apple, and as a result, Apple employees aren't exposed to functions outside their area of expertise. Jennifer Bailey, the executive who runs Apple's online store, for example, has no authority over the photographs on the site. Photographic images are handled companywide by Apple's graphic arts department. Apple's powerful retail chief, Ron Johnson, doesn't control the inventory in his stores. Tim Cook, whose background is in supply-chain management, handles inventory across the company” (p. 127). Apple sees the work specialization model as suiting the company goals the best as it allows more focus on specific goals for those that are suited the best to achieve it. The methodology is contrary to the organic structure utilizing a cross-functional or cross-hierarchical team and Apple Inc. feels would be less efficient and effective.
The reason the current method of the organization’s structure at Apple Inc. is successful is because of a combination of departmentalization, and work specialization. Each department has a single responsibility such as Mac software and IPhone software. Each department is...