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Osvojenie Si Sveta Fyzikálnych Vecí Essay

3726 words - 15 pages

Osvojenie si sveta fyzikálnych vecíAbstractTento článok sa zaoberá kognitívnym vývojom dieťaťa a jeho chápania a osvojovania si sveta fyzikálnych vecí. Hovorí o niekoľkých existujúcich teóriách, z ktorých najzásadnejšia pochádza od Jeana Piageta, ktorá deťom do veku 8-9 mesiacov upiera chápanie fyzikálnych vecí ako objektov s vlastnosťami a nezávislou existenciou, ktorá sa riadi fyzikálnymi zákonmi. Táto teória a hlavne metodológia experimentov je ...view middle of the document...

V tejto práci vám predstavíme významné štúdie z tejto oblasti.Piagetova teóriaPiaget rád porovnával vývoj znalostí dieťaťa o fyzickom svete k astronómii 16. storočia. (Spelke, 1991). Podobne ako vtedy ľudia konštruovali model heliocentrickej sústavy, tak si podľa Piageta aj dieťa konštruuje svoj model sveta. Verí, že jeho percepcia a akcie priamo ovplyvňujú svet okolo neho a on je jeho centrom. Toto je manifestácia tzv. egocentrizmu. Deti určitého veku až do ôsmich až deviatich mesiacov nevnímajú samostatnú existenciu objektov, ktorá je nezávislá od ich bytia. Objekty začínajú existovať až vtedy, ak sa nejakým spôsobom dostanú do pozornosti detí a ich zmyslov a prestanú existovať v momente, ak sa z tejto pozornosti vytratia. Piaget túto svoju teóriu podložil pokusmi, kedy malo dieťa hľadať hračku, ktorá bola priamo pred ním, ale zakrytá látkou. Piaget si vysvetlil neschopnosť dieťaťa tento objekt nájsť tak, že keďže bol predmet mimo dohľadu, stratil sa aj z mysle dieťaťa a tým preň prestal existovať. (Baillargeon, 1987) Vyvodil teda záver, že dieťa nevníma hračku ako objekt, ktorý je od neho nezávislý a jeho existencia naďalej pretrváva - tzv. trvalý objekt.Obrázok 1 - Piagetov experiment - Chápanie trvalého objektuOkrem iných experimentov, robil aj nasledovný. V tomto pokuse sa objekt pohybuje z bodu a do bodu D a medzitým prechádza oblasťou medzi bodmi B a C, ktorá je za závesom. V tejto oblasti sa objekt stráca z dohľadu a dieťa ho hľadá v bode A. Keď sa objaví v bode C, dieťa s prekvapením sleduje jeho cestu ďalej do bodu D, kde sa opäť stráca. Dieťa ho následne hľadá v bode C a dokonca aj v bode A, čiže zjavne nechápe, že objekt má nejakú trajektóriu, po ktorej sa pohybuje, polohu či vlastnosti. Podľa Piageta je chápanie trvalého objektu veľmi doležité pre vnímanie fyzikálneho sveta a toto nastáva vo veku medzi 8-9 mesiacmi, kedy dieťa začne rozlišovať seba od ostatného sveta. Vtedy začína chápať trvalosť objektu a prisudzovať mu vlastnosti aj vtedy, keď ho priamo nepozoruje. (Rybár, 1997)Kritika Piagetových pokusovHlavná kritika Piagetovych pokusov spočíva v...

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