Kadir Has University
History of Turkish Republic
Shah Basit Hussain Qureshi
1- In your view, what were the reasons for the Ottoman Empire’s
demise? How did competing internal and external factors play into
the weakening of the empire?
There were few vital reasons for the downfall of Ottoman Empire’s,
linked with some of internal and external factors which played a
important role to weaken the Ottoman’s empire. I will take this
opportunity to write on this significant historical downfall factors of
Ottomans Empire and I will write try to accomplish those major points
from which this downfall led to Ottoman Empire.
It was the second Egyptian crisis which manifested ...view middle of the document...
For the reason that this division took no account of the
miscellaneous character of the population in the south and the north,
tensions almost immediately rose and in 1845 they erupted in large-scale
fighting, with the Druzes burning down Numerous Maronite Christian
villages. The French had well-known de facto protectorate over the
Maronite Christians of the Lebanon (who were unite, that is, they
recognized the pope and were therefore officially regarded as Catholics),
the British over the Druzes, and the Russians over the Orthodox
Christians. The Ottomans severely punished the Druze cream of the crop
and set up counseling assemblies on behalf of the communities in both
cantons. This time the Powers refrained from through involvements.
These are those important points above which I mentioned, in my
opinion these were the vital factors led to the demise or downfall of the
Ottoman Empire in that era.
2- Explain why the ‘six arrows of Kemalism’ – or, the founding
ideology of modern Turkey – emphasized secularism and
nationalism so much? Which historical events have lead to the
designation of these two issues as important?
The Secularism and nationalism has emphasized much to this region and
mush concerned and connected for creating of modern Turkey ideology
presented as “Six arrows of Kemalism”.
The indispensable principles of Kemalism were laid down in the party
in 1931. They were many different participant were included such as,
republicanism, secularism, nationalism, populism, statism and
revolutionaries. Secularism and nationalism had of course been
surrounded by the distinctive characteristics of Young Turk ideology at
least since 1913. For the duration of the 1930’s both were conceded to
extremes, secularism being interpreted not only as a division of state and
religion, but as the elimination of the religion from public life and the
establishment of absolute state have power over remaining religious
institutions. A tremendous form of nationalism, with the assistant
creation of historical myths, was used as the most important instrument
in the building of a new national identity, and as such was anticipated to
take the place of religion in many respects. Republicanism had been a
basic principle since 1923. Political activity in favor of a return of the
monarchy (Ottoman Empire) had been outdated.
Populism intended the impression the first emphasized during the First
World War, of national solidarity and putting the interests of the whole
nation before those of any group or class. In a negative sense it entailed
a disagreement of class interests. Turkey did not have classes in the
European sense and a prohibition of political activity based on class.
Revolutionaries were more conservative followers have preferred to
interpret the Turkish term “Inkilapcilik”. On the other hand Statism was
a new concept that recognized the incomparability of the state in the
money-making field; and it was in all...