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Outline And Critically Assess The Key Assumptions Underpinning Approaches To Crime Prevention

3181 words - 13 pages

Outline and critically assess the key assumptions underpinning approaches to crime prevention.Outline and critically assess the key assumptions underpinning approaches to crime prevention.
If we look at the definition of crime, we can learn that crime is “an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law”.Crime could be labelled as one of the most disturbing facts in human`s life. Even if we can see the decrease in overall crime in 2012, we cannot be absolutely sure that it will completely disappear. Many criminologists are interested in crime prevention topic but when people are actually trying to do something with the aim to reduce crime itself, they could ...view middle of the document...

The fear reduction, in particularly, is an important part of many crime prevention programmes and it is a permanent part of criminological research. People did not and probably still do not know who or what to trust. “We are left not knowing who or what to trust and under such stress the fear of crime can take on unimaginable proportions.”(Evans et al. 1996) So, the question arises what do we actually do and what our government does in order to protect the civilians and to reduce crime.
There are basic crime prevention schemes. For example, if we look at Crime Prevention (2007) written by Steven P. Lab or a work called Crime Prevention (2009) written by D. Gilling, we can see three different crime prevention approaches. They are: Primary Prevention, Secondary Prevention and Tertiary Prevention. Primary Prevention “seeks to reduce opportunities for crime by protecting victims/targets”. On this stage crime prevention includes environmental design (such as architecture design, lighting), neighbourhood watch (citizen patrol), general deterrence, public education, social crime prevention and private security. Secondary prevention “seeks to change people who may be considered particularly at risk of offending” Secondary prevention consists of identification and prediction, situation crime prevention, community policing, substance abuse, schools and crime prevention. Tertiary prevention involves work with the actual offenders and makes steps to “convince” them not to commit crime in the future (Brantingham and Faust, 1976).It comprises specific deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation and treatment. Some of the points are repeated in different approaches but the distinction is that on different levels they imply different actions and pursue variety of purposes. Some of them (primary prevention) deal with preventing the crime appearance and other (secondary prevention) deal with what is already exist.
The information said above about primary, secondary and tertiary approaches is widely used but it is not the only one dimension and explanation of crime prevention system. Van Dijk and de Waard (1991) offered to add victim-oriented, community/neighbourhood-oriented and offender- oriented approaches. Techniques can be divided into actions, which are relating to victims, the community, or potential offenders. Crawford (1998) took primary, secondary and tertiary approaches as a base and added a distinction between social and situational tactics within each category.
In the above-said, I mentioned two main components of crime prevention schemes: social and situational crime prevention. Some people believe in effectiveness of first, other in rightness of second. I would like to start with situational crime prevention. It is known that Conservative party is all about making people more responsible for themselves. I am not going to discuss is it a good thing or other way round because it is not my essay question, I would like to take this information just...

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