Outline And Evaluate Circadian Rhythms

4955 words - 20 pages

Describe and evaluate research into circadian rhythms (8+16)
Research into circadian rhythms has assessed the effects of isolating participants from external time cues (exogenous zeitgebers) on our 24 hour cycles, and suggesting that an internal body clock (endogenous pacemaker) creates a free running sleep/wake cycle rhythm of 25 hours.
Siffre (1975)
* Case study of his own experiences in an underground cave for 2 months. Without any exogenous zeitgebers such as light or cues to guide him, his sleep/wake cycle generally adjusted to a 25 hour cycle, though sometimes changing dramatically up to 48 hours.
Aschoff and Weaver (1976)
* Designed a temporal isolation study by placing ...view middle of the document...

Morgan (1995)
* Investigated the role of endogenous pacemakers, in particular the SCN, in the circadian rhythms of hamsters.
* Morgan removed the SCN in hamsters and found that their circadian rhythm disappeared.
* SCN was replaced by those of foetal hamsters, the circadian rhythm was re-established.
* Highly reliable, great contribution to understanding of the human brain and behaviour, evidence for the location of the SCN in the brain which controls circadian rhythms.
* Morgan’s research breaches ethical guidelines because lesions and permanent damage was inflicted upon the hamsters, made worse by the fact that the study cannot be generalised by humans because hamsters don’t share physiological properties with humans or even share similar circadian rhythm hours.

Other research has investigated possible 24 hour cognitive performance rhythms linked to the core body temperature cycle.
* It is lowest at around 4:30 am (36 degrees) and highest at 6:00 pm (38 degrees) with a slight trough after lunchtime.

Folkard et al (1977)
* Investigated the learning ability of young teenagers by asking them to recall a story a week after being read to (either at 9:00am or 3:00pm).
* The higher afternoon temperature group showed a superior recall and understanding, suggesting that long term recall is better with a higher body temperature.

Giesbrecht et al (1993)
* How temperature changes do cause changes in cognitive performance.
* Participants had their body temperatures lowered by sitting in cold water and were found to have a worse cognitive performance. However, no correlation can be ascertained due to other refuting evidence.

Hord and Thompson (1983)
* Tested cognitive performance in a more internally valid experiment (as opposed to a contrived laboratory experiment) and found no correlation.

Wright (2002)
* Suggests, higher temperature leads to increased physiological arousal and improved cognitive performance, therefore body temperature may not directly influence cognitive performance.

Circadian cognitive performance rhythms have real world applications in the field of education because it’s implied that learning would be more successful at particular times
* Reflected in PISA country education rankings with Spain scoring higher than England.
* The lack of reliability in this area however, means that caution must be taken when implementing applications until conclusive research has determined why students often yield conflicting results.

The main flaw of research into circadian rhythms is that studies often fail to take into account individual differences
* Within 24 hour rhythms, especially how people are far from ‘average’ given differing health, customs and socioeconomic backgrounds.

Gonzalez (1990)
* Found how people in hotter countries, such as Mexico, take naps in the afternoon to avoid working in the heat and generally work until later on in...

Other Essays Like Outline and Evaluate Circadian Rhythms

Outline and Evaluate Genetic Factors in Aggression

831 words - 4 pages Genetic Factors are those that we inherit through our parents, they are used to explain why aggression runs through families. Genetic factors play a role in aggressive behaviour and lies within an individual’s genetic make-up. Psychologists, look at twin studies to try and find evidence on a genetic basis to compare the degree of similarity of aggression between sets of monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins. A lot of the time, it is

Outline and Evaluate the Breakdown of Relationships

1064 words - 5 pages Outline and evalute the breakdown of relationships A01- Duck skills maintenance A02-Shavier, Rofhling IDA- gender bias PA- ccet - china A01-rollie and duck -stages of breakdown A02 - Tashiro and Frazier A03- methological flaws IDA - determinsitic Duck suggested that relationships breakdown due to various of reasons, such as lack of skills. This means that people in the relationships have a lack of interpersonal skills to make

It Has Been Claimed That the Humanistic Approach Has Little to Offer Psychology. Outline and Evaluate the Humanistic Approach in Psychology. Refer to at Least One Other Approach in Your Answer (12...

717 words - 3 pages It has been claimed that the humanistic approach has little to offer psychology. Outline and evaluate the humanistic approach in psychology. Refer to at least one other approach in your answer (12 marks) The humanistic approach is an approach put together by Maslow and Rogers to explain human behaviour. the humanistic approach considers an individuals subjective experience to be very important in an individuals action and their conscious

Outline and evaluate one restoration account of the function of sleep

529 words - 3 pages The restoration theory of sleep function is carried out by Oswald, who argues that the purpose of sleep is to restore depleted energy reserves, eliminate waste products from muscles, repair cells and recover physical abilities that have been lost during the day.Evidence for this theory is firstly by Shapiro, who found that people who ran an ultra marathon slept 1.5 hours longer then they did two nights following the race. In addition, stage four

Cicardian Rythm

2656 words - 11 pages used in my Research Paper to gather more informations. Background of the Study Circadian rhythms allow organisms to anticipate what will happen soon and adjust physical and behavioral changes accordingly. They also allow seasonal animals and plants to keep track of the seasons by measuring daylength. Circadian rhythms are often called the body clock. Humans produce on average a cycle lasting a bit over 24 hours, though there are

Circadian Rhythms

988 words - 4 pages Circadian rhythms Biological rhythms are cyclical behaviours repeated periodically and controlled by endogenous pacemakers (internal biological clocks) or exogenous zeitgebers (external cues like light, seasonal changes, temperature, social cues). Circadian rhythms are biological cycles lasting 24hours like the sleep/wake cycle, which is facilitated by time-checks and regular events such as meal times (external cues). The main internal

Shift Work Sleep Disorder

525 words - 3 pages , 2009). SWSD belongs to the group of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Circadian rhythms are the natural internal body mechanisms that regulate body wake/sleep cycle. When circadian rhythms are disturbed the person may experience warning signs of SWSD. The two main symptoms of SWSD are excessive sleepiness at night, during working hours, and insomnia during daytime sleeping hours. SWSD is widely undiagnosed and undertreated in the medical

Hypothalamus

757 words - 4 pages important role in the integrated control of heat production and heat loss from the body 2. Regulation of anterior pituitary gland activity a. Regulates the activity of the anterior pituitary gland by releasing factors and release inhibiting factors into the hypothalamus-hypophysial tract 3. Regulation of the posterior pituitary hormone secretion a. ADH and Oxytocin 4. Control of circadian rhythm a. There is a circadian rhythm for

In Modern Day Society There Is an Increasing Need to Work Longer 24hour Shifts. Using Your Knowledge of Biological Rhythms and Their Impacts Disscuss the Impact of These Demands

625 words - 3 pages In modern day society there is an increasing need to work longer 24hour shifts. using your knowledge of biological rhythms and their impacts disscuss the impact of these demands. Shift work is a work pattern that falls outside of the normal 9-5 working hours. Shift hours came into place firstly in hospitals. This was because the patients needed round the clock care. Another place where shift work came into place was in factories. However even

Global Warming

3493 words - 14 pages undergo within the passage of a twenty-four hour day. Aside from sleeping at night and waking during the day, each cycle involves many other factors such as changes in blood pressure and body temperature. Not everyone has an identical circadian rhythm. ‘Night people’, for example, often describe how they find it very hard to operate during the morning, but become alert and focused by evening. This is a benign variation within circadian rhythms

How Eyes Use Light to Manage Body Clocks

591 words - 3 pages New Evidence on How our Eyes use Light to Manage our Body Clock - University of Surrey Groundbreaking Study Results August 20, 2001 A new study published this week shows for the first time that the human eye is sensitive to short wave length visible light and transmits information to the body clock in a way that may make it possible to manipulate waking and sleeping rhythms. This new data, gained from a study carried out at the University

Related Papers

Outline And Evaluate The Behaviourist, Including Two Behavioural Therapies

1421 words - 6 pages “outline and evaluate the behaviourist, including two behavioural therapies” Introduction Behaviourist approach: All behaviours learned from experiences that a person has had in their environment. All behaviour is learned through reinforcement or punishment. This was through Watson (1913) Pavlov (1849-1936) and through Skinner (1904-1990). The following pages outline operant and classical conditioning and behaviour therapies

Outline And Evaluate Research Into The Duration, Capacity, And Encoding Of Information In Short Term Memory

641 words - 3 pages “Outline and evaluate research into the duration, capacity, and encoding of information in short-term memory.” Peterson and Peterson conducted a study of the duration of short-term memory. The experimenter said a consonant syllable to the participant, followed by a three-digit number, for example: IDM 302. The consonant syllable had to not have a meaning, for example: not BBC. Immediately after hearing this, the participant had to count

Outline And Evaluate One Psychological Explanation And One Biological Explanation Of An Eating Disorder. [24 Marks]

1049 words - 5 pages Outline and evaluate one psychological explanation and one biological explanation of an eating disorder. [24 marks] Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent binge-eating followed by self-induced vomiting or another compensatory behaviour (purging). One psychological explanation of bulimia nervosa is the functional model which was created by Polivy et al. in 1994. This model suggests that individuals engage in the

Outline And Evaluate One Or More Evolutionary Explanations For The Functions Of Sleep. (24)

870 words - 4 pages Outline and evaluate one or more evolutionary explanations for the functions of sleep. (24) Intro: * Behaviors evolve, develop if they provide selective advantages for the animal * Sleep=evolved into an essential behavior and serves an adaptive purpose in the EEA Because it provides Selective Advantages * In other words sleep either provides some biological functions or it has other benefit * There are different