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Outline And Evaluate One Or More Evolutionary Explanations For The Functions Of Sleep. (24)

870 words - 4 pages

Outline and evaluate one or more evolutionary explanations for the functions of sleep. (24)

Intro:
* Behaviors evolve, develop if they provide selective advantages for the animal
* Sleep=evolved into an essential behavior and serves an adaptive purpose in the EEA
Because it provides Selective Advantages
* In other words sleep either provides some biological functions or it has other benefit
* There are different explanations explaining the functions of sleep

P1:
* First one being Energy Conservation
* Mammals need to expend a lot of energy to maintain a constant body temp
* This is particularly problematic for small animals with high metabolic rates as ...view middle of the document...

g. cows eat plants, relatively low in nutrients therefore don’t sleep much to make up eating time
* Whereas carnivores such as cats eat food high in nutrients which allows them to sleep more
* Meaning that greater foraging requirements due to higher metabolic rate/diets of low energy
Creates a restraint on time available for sleeping

Therefore:
* Capellini’s study and foraging function of sleep=more likely to be valid
* As there were methodological issues in Rechstaffen’s energy conservation study
* Rechstaffen’s research=flawed because the methods used to collect data on sleep in different animals=not standardized
* Therefore comparisons between species=meaningless
* On the other hand Capellini carefully selected data from studies only using standardized procedures in lab conditions
Making research into sleep for foraging requirements more internally valid and credible as an explanation

P3:
* Another explanation of the evolutionary function of sleep
=Predator Avoidance
* Predators sleep longer as there being less of a risk of being eaten/killed
* Prey sleep less they must remain vigilant to avoid predators
* So sleep therefore must serve vital functions because if not, natural selection would have eliminated it given the fact that it puts survival at risk

Supported by:
* Allison and Cicchetti 1976:
* Found species who had higher risk of predation did sleep less

BUT:
* They also found exceptions
* Rabbits who have high danger rating slept as much as moles who had a low danger rating
* Goes against the Predator and Prey status
* As it implies sleep may not be evolutionary but actually biologically essential
* Thus showing it could be...

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