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Outline Instructions

1157 words - 5 pages


• Attention Getter- Did you know that sixty percent of the food you eat contains one or more genetically modified ingredients? This percentage continues to grow every year, but could increase if the FDA lowers their already negligent requirements on GMFs, making it easier to distribute genetically modified food.

• Topic- The controversy over genetically modified food

• Ethos and Audience Adaptation- As an organic gardener and a concerned citizen, I know how difficult it is to find seeds that have not been genetically modified or encountered genetically modified organisms. Aside from this personal reason, I have researched genetically modified food for the past ...view middle of the document...

In industrialized nations, they are usually made for a better taste

Transition: Now that I have explained how and why genetically modified foods are made, I will now discuss where these foods are found.

2. Where genetically modified foods are found
A. 2006, 353 million acres of GMF crops in 22 countries (U.S. Dept. of Energy)
B. Majority of GMFs come from the United States
C. Common are soy beans, corn, and canola (Wholesome Goodness Productions)
D. Genetically engineered animals found mainly in U.S.
E. Examples include:
a) Salmon that quickly mature
F. Washington State apple growers have genetically modified apples
a) First of their kind in Washington

Transition: I have now gone over where GMFs are found, we will now be covering the benefits and risks of GMFs.

3. Arguments for the growth and cultivation of genetically modified foods
A. Those who support GMFs: agricultural businesses, bioengineering specialists, and farmers who grow these crops
B. Their main arguments are:
a) Better taste
b) More nutrients
c) Possibility of less fat and leaner meat
C. Better for the environment due to built-in herbicides (U.S. Department of Energy)
d) Allows farmers to spray crops with weed killer without killing crops
e) Important because 12% of crops grown are destroyed by weeds (Thomson)
C. Providing food for poor countries
D. Health for poor countries
a) Some foods that could help poor countries:
I. Golden rice (Vitamin A)- can prevent night blindness in children and other vision problems (Wholesome Goodness Productions)
II. Peaches and apples that can provide immunizations to poor countries

Translation: While these benefits are very compelling, one must also weigh the consequences when deciding whether growing and raising GMFs are worth the consequences mentioned below.

4. Arguments against the growing and raising of genetically modified food
a) Damaging to the food web
A. Destroying beneficial pollinators
B. Experiment conducted in 1994
a) Monarch butterfly larvae ate milkweed dusted w/ GMF corn pollen
b) Pollen was toxic- death rate of 44% (Letourneau and Burrows)
b) Gene drift
A. Process of genes from genetically modified crops and animals that enter the DNA of another non-modified organisms
B. Crops- genes escaping via spillage of seeds (McHughen)
C. Possibility of gene drift to other plants
a) creation of super weeds
b) hybrid plants- genetically modified plants mixing with wild relatives via cross pollination
c) Allergens
A. New DNA can cause allergic reactions
B. Testing for allergens involves taking sample and...

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